May 2011 - CDC Public Health Law News
Thursday, May 30, 2011
From the Public Health Law Program,
Office for State, Tribal, Local and Territorial Support,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
From the Public Health Law Program, Office of Strategy and Innovation, CDC
***New Public Health Law Program Director. Matthew Penn, JD, MLIS, joined CDC's Office for State, Tribal, Local, and Territorial Support (OSTLTS) on April 25 as Director of the Public Health Law Program (PHLP). Matthew comes to CDC from the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control where he served as a staff attorney for 9 years, providing in-house counsel and litigation services. As the PHLP director he is responsible for leading the agency's public health law efforts and technical assistance to support practitioners and policymakers at the state, tribal, local, and territorial levels. He will also help direct the development of practical, law-centered tools to address public health priorities such as the winnable battles and legal preparedness issues. Please join us in welcoming Matthew to PHLP!
***Cross-Border Legal Preparedness Article. Dan Stier and Maria Guadalupe Uribe Esquivel have written the article "Cross-Border Legal Preparedness: A Comparative Review of Selected Public Health Emergency Legal Authorities in Canada and Mexico" in the Saint Louis University Journal of Health Law and Policy. The article explains the public health emergency laws of Canada and Mexico for U.S. state and local public health officials and attorneys. To read the article, visit http://law.slu.edu/healthlaw/journal/archives/Stier_and_Esquivel_Article.pdf.
***World Health Organization article. Lawrence Gostin and Devi Sridhar have written the article "Reforming the World Health Organization" in the April 20, 2011, edition of the Journal of the American Medical Association. In the article, the authors propose five methods for reestablishing the World Health Organization's leadership in global health. To read the article, visit http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/305/15/1585.full.
***School Vaccination Law. On March 22, 2011, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit upheld a West Virginia law mandating vaccination in children as a condition of entering school. A parent challenged the constitutionality of the law under the Free Exercise, Due Process, and Equal Protection Clauses on claims which the court ruled were without merit. To read the opinion for Workman v. Mingo County Board of Education, visit http://pacer.ca4.uscourts.gov/opinion.pdf/092352.U.pdf .
***Road Safety Fact Sheets. The CDC's National Center for Injury Prevention and Control has released new fact sheets highlighting state costs of deaths from motor vehicle crashes to coincide with the launch of the Decade of Action. The United Nations General Assembly has proclaimed 2011 to 2020 the Decade of Action for Road Safety, a period of enhanced focus on protecting people on the world's roads. The fact sheets are available at http://www.cdc.gov/motorvehiclesafety/statecosts/.
***Hospital Preparedness.The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response has released From Hospitals to Healthcare Coalitions: Transforming Health Preparedness and Response in Our Communities, the program's first state-by-state report identifying advances states have made in preparing hospitals for major disasters. To read the report, visit http://www.phe.gov/Preparedness/planning/hpp/Documents/hpp-healthcare-coalitions.pdf.
***APHA Midyear Meeting: Implementing Health Reform. Registration is now open for the APHA Midyear Meeting: Implementing Health Reform — A Public Health Approach. Join public health colleagues and partners in Chicago, June 23-25, 2011, to better understand health reform and its implications from a public health perspective. Gain the tools needed for implementing the provisions of the Affordable Care Act and for improving health outcomes in communities across the country. To register or for more information, visit http://www.apha.org/midyear.
***Public Health Law Research Workshop. The National Program Office (NPO) of the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation's Public Health Law Research Program (PHLR) will conduct "The Public Health Law Research Workshop: Using Empirical Methods to Measure Law, Special Workshop" on Thursday, June 9, 2011 at Loyola University Chicago School of Law, prior to the start of the 34th Annual American Society of Law, Medicine, and Ethics (ASLME) Health Law Professors Conference. The workshop will introduce attendees to foundational principles and techniques for empirically evaluating the relationship between law and health. For more information, visit http://newsmanager.commpartners.com/aslme/issues/2011-05-12/5.html.
1. Appeals court hears challenges to health care law
States and Localities
2. California: Lawmaker wants state to count more ethnic groups
3. Illinois: Lawmakers ponder immunity in overdose cases
4. Iowa: Iowa not regulating all outpatient surgery centers
5. Nevada: Advocates ask hand washing to be part of Nevada safety bill
6. New Jersey: N.J. Assembly committee advances bill to extend domestic violence laws to pets
Colorado defective toilet paper • Florida welfare drug testing • Florida pill mill penalties • Georgia golf carts • Maryland autism doctor license suspended • Mississippi lead paint appeal • New Hampshire pool inspections • New Jersey police dogs • New York soft drinks ban • New York Kendra's Law amendment • Ohio carbon monoxide deaths • National e-Cigs Regulation • FDA prescription pill action • Raw milk sting • Mercury fillings • China smoking ban • Japan nuclear plant suspension
Botswana alcohol levy • Maryland infection control • Nursing home citations • Bloodstream infections • Food assistance • Water rights • Children and toxic chemicals • Flame retardant regulation • Food safety • Child environmental disease • Toxic Substances Control Act • HIV testing laws • Vaccine liability • School wellness • Safe injection facilities • Herbal medicine regulation • State smoking laws • Affordable Care Act regulations • Freedom of Information Act
Alabama wastewater system requirements • California spaying and neutering • Hazardous materials • Colorado municipal water services • Connecticut pollution from nuclear plant • Montana medication administration policy • New York HIV-related confidentiality • Diesel emissions regulations • Washington duty for sewage systems • Federal Tribal environmental health • Laser hair removal • Dietary health claims • Tobacco marketing data • Municipal code violations • Correctional medical care
"Appeals court hears challenges to health care law"
NPR (05/11/2011) Julie Rovner
On Tuesday, May 20, 2011, the first of dozens of lawsuits challenging the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was argued before the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit in Richmond, Virginia. Much of the arguments focus was on whether the individual insurance mandate is an overreach of Congress' powers under the Constitution's commerce clause, which allows Congress to regulate commerce between the states.
Matthew Staver, an attorney representing Liberty University in Lynchburg, Virginia, argued against the Act. "The government cannot point to any single case where idleness, a choice not to engage in an economic transaction, has been found reachable under the commerce clause," he said.
Arguing in favor of the Act was U.S. Solicitor General Neal Katyal. Katyal repeatedly pointed out that everyone consumes health care, whether they have insurance or not. "That is a virtually universal feature of human existence. Everyone is going to seek health care. Nobody can know precisely when," said Katyal.
The Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit in Cincinnati is scheduled to hear the appeal of a ruling in favor of the law on June 1, 2011. On June 8, 2011, the Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit in Atlanta is scheduled to review a ruling which invalidated the entire act.
"Lawmaker wants state to count more ethnic groups"
California Watch (05/09/2011) Joanna Lin
California Assemblyman Mike Eng proposed Assembly Bill 1088 which would include more ethnic groups. He maintains the current data collection systems lack specific data on Asian, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islander ethnic groups, masking socioeconomic, education, and major health disparities in California.
Although many state agencies do not currently count all Asians or Pacific Islanders, Eng stresses the importance of counting the groups. "We don't appear in the statistics. Without the numbers, we don't get the resources we need. … It means we're not getting the services we need," he said.
Not having specific data creates many hurdles for organizations working to provide services to diverse communities. "When you look at the data as an aggregate, it's going to be misleading. We're not all the same. We have different cultural issues, different historical push-pull factors that bring us into the U.S.," said An Le, statewide network manager for the Asian Pacific American Legal Center, one of the bill's sponsors.
The bill, which passed assembly committee on May 5, 2011, would require all state agencies, boards and commissions to expand the number of ethnic groups it counts from 11 to 21, much like those elucidated by the U.S. Census bureau. Among those to be included under the proposed legislation are Bangladeshi, Hmong, Indonesian, Malaysian, Pakistani, Sir Lankan, Taiwanese, Thai, Fijian, and Tongan, groups that represent a substantial portion of California's population according to the 2010 U.S. Census.
[Editor's Note: To read the bill please visit http://leginfo.ca.gov/cgi-bin/postquery?bill_number=ab_1088&sess=CUR&house=B&author=eng]
"Lawmakers ponder immunity in overdose cases"
Chicago Tribune (05/07/2011) Zachary Colman
The Illinois House of Representatives is considering legislation - already passed by the Illinois Senate - offering potential immunity protections to drug users or possessors who call emergency services for someone overdosing. The legislation is an attempt to reduce drug-related deaths since drug overdoses, particularly heroin-related, have increased across the state.
Kathie Kane-Willis, the director of Roosevelt University's Illinois Consortium on Drug Policy, is a strong supporter of the law. In her twenties, Kane-Willis was forced to make the decision to call emergency services for her overdosing boyfriend, facing potential legal repercussions, or let him die. "My boyfriend had known of people who had been dumped in the woods. I always thought I would call 9-1-1, no question. But when there's a bunch of people yelling at you not to, it takes a formidable will to overcome that," said Kane-Wills.
Advocates say the bill will lead more addicts to rehabilitation treatment as well as save more lives than incarceration, but some law enforcement officials feel the law is not tough enough. The Illinois Chiefs of Police advocate only offering immunity to the person who overdoses. Rather than offering blanket immunity to callers, judges and prosecutors would have discretion to take the caller's actions into account with regard to charging and sentencing. "By doing the right thing, you're going to be rewarded with the fact that you did the right thing." said Laimutis Nargelenas, a lobbyist for the organization.
Although the original bill had no limits for the amount of drugs the emergency caller could possess and still gain immunity, the Senate limited the amount in possession. For example, one must possess less than three grams of a substance containing heroin to gain immunity.
[Editor's Note: To read the bill please visit http://www.ilga.gov/legislation/97/SB/09700SB1701.htm]
"Iowa not regulating all outpatient surgery centers"
Sioux City Journal (04/23/2011)
Iowa has 26 Medicare-certified ambulatory surgical centers which are inspected once every three years, but there are an unknown number of centers that are not part of the Medicare system and therefore are not subject to federal inspections and tracking. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, rising infection rates are due to unsafe medical practices and a failure to follow basic patient safety guidelines.
According to reports in the Des Moines Register, it is unclear whether Iowa is monitoring these facilities because the state does not require the facilities to obtain licenses. "We know they're out there, but they don't have to report to anyone, so we don't know where they are. There's no way to count them and currently no one to license them," said a spokesman for the Iowa Department of Inspection and Appeals, David Werning.
The president of the Iowa Association of Ambulatory Surgical Centers, Kevin
Hamers, said that without legislation to license surgical centers, it would be hard to predict his organization's opinion about the issue. "We would probably be opposed from the standpoint that most, if not all of the ASCs in Iowa achieve a higher accreditation standard through third-party reporting," said Hamers.
The Ambulatory Surgical Center Association, a national organization based in Alexandria, Virginia, has advocated for the federal government to implement a uniform quality reporting system. Iowa is among eight states that do not license ambulatory surgical centers.
[Editor's Note: For more information about CDC's infection control assessment of ambulatory surgical centers, visit http://www.cdc.gov/injectionsafety/pubs-IC-Assessment-Ambulatory-Surgical-Centers.html.]
"Advocates ask hand washing to be part of Nevada safety bill"
Reno Gazette-Journal (05/06/2011) Frank X. Mullen
Nevada Assembly Bill 280, which would require safety checklists and patient safety policies at heath care facilities, was passed after removing language that required healthcare workers to "wash their hands before and after every interaction with a patient and after coming into contact with a surface or object that may be contaminated."
As passed, the bill now mentions proper "hand hygiene." Bill sponsor John Oceguera said the bill's language is meant to be broad enough to include all the various hand sanitation methods used at hospitals.
Steve Winters, a patient safety advocate who lost his mother to a hospital-acquired infection, feels the language should have been kept. "Wash your hands before and after seeing a patient. Make sure the doctor isn't walking out of there with an infection," he said.
Others feel the wording implied that health care providers were not washing their hands at all. Barry Gold of the Nevada chapter of the American Association of Retired People said the proposed amendment recognizes that hand washing is just one of the acceptable methods for keeping patients safe from hospital acquired-infections.
[Editor's Note: To read the bill please visit http://www.leg.state.nv.us/Session/76th2011/Reports/history.cfm?ID=595]
"N.J. Assembly committee advances bill to extend domestic violence laws to pets"
NJ.com (05/05/2011) Christopher Baxter
Many domestic violence victims stay with their abuser because they fear for their pet's safety and many abusers target their victim's pet. New Jersey Assembly Bill A1633, supported by the Assembly Judiciary Committee, would allow judges to include pets in protective restraining orders designed to keep abusers away from their victims. The bill would also allow judges to assign legal custody of pets to victims, allowing pets to be removed from dangerous homes.
Assemblywoman Connie Wagner, co-sponsor of the Bill, said, "We've heard so many stories of pets being abused or even killed as retaliation against a partner when a relationship goes sour." According to Wagner, 21 states have passed similar laws.
The bill, based upon the link between domestic violence and violence against animals, highlights how domestic violence permeates a household, with abusers using anything the victim holds important to gain control. Sandy Clark, executive director of the New Jersey Coalition for Battered Women, said, "there are hundreds and hundreds of ways that batterers can threaten and attempt to control the victim. This is one of them. And it's a big one."
The bill will now move from committee to the full Assembly. A similar bill is also pending in the Senate.
[Editor's Note: To read the bill please visit http://www.njleg.state.nj.us/bills/BillView.asp]
Colorado: Defective toilet paper leads to more than $40K in damages, suit filed
"CU sues over 'defective' toilet paper that flooded Boulder campus stalls"
Daily Camera (05/04/2011) Vanessa Miller
Florida: Governor to sign bill requiring drug testing for welfare recipient eligibility
"Bill requiring welfare recipients to take drug tests headed to governor"
Miami Herald (05/05/2011) Jodie Tillman
Florida: Bill stiffens penalties for doctors overprescribing pain medications
"Florida targeting 'pill mills'"
Wall Street Journal (05/09/2011) Arian Campo-Flores
Georgia: Georgians will be putting around in golf carts on city streets
"Deal OKs golf cart use for Georgia streets"
Atlanta Business Chronicle (05/05/2011)
Maryland: Doctor "endangers autistic children and exploits their parents," license suspended
"Md. autism doctor's license suspended"
Los Angeles Times (05/04/2011) Steve Mills and Patricia Callahan
Mississippi: $7 million lead paint verdict against Sherwin-Williams' appealed
"Sherwin-Williams' appeals Miss. Lead paint verdict"
Bloomberg Businessweek (04/19/2011) Jack Elliot, Jr.
New Hampshire: As state funding dries up, pools could be swimming in bacteria
"Cut would eliminate NH's pool inspection"
Forbes (05/08/2011) Norma Love
New Jersey: Harming police dogs could result in minimum 5 yr prison sentence
"N.J. Assembly this week to consider harsher legislation against those who harm police dogs"
New York: NYC Mayor plans to reduce obesity by banning soft drink food stamp purchases
"Soft drink industry fights proposed food stamp ban"
New York Times (04/29/2011) Robert Pear
New York: Law would have stricter rules for releasing mentally ill convicts
"Some believe Kendra's Law has loopholes, should be stronger"
Democrat and Chronicle (05/07/2011) Cara Matthews
Ohio: Family of four die from carbon monoxide, landlord charged with reckless homicide
"Ohio landlord hit with rare charge in CO deaths"
Forbes (05/02/2011) John Seewer
National: E-cigs to be regulated as tobacco products, not subject to drug-delivery device scrutiny
"FDA to regulate e-cigs as tobacco products"
ABC News (04/25/2011) Michael Felberbaum
National: Painkiller makers must provide physicians with educational materials
"FDA unveils new action on prescription drug abuse"
National: FDA takes Amish farmer to court over raw milk sales
"Feds sting Amish farmer selling raw milk locally"
Washington Times (04/29/2011) Stephen Dinan
National: Mercury is considered toxic, FDA says ok in dental fillings
"Mercury in dental fillings comes under fire at FDA meeting in Orlando"
Los Angeles Times (05/05/2011) Linda Shrieves
China: Smoking banned in public places, unclear how to enforce
"Smoking ban details remain hazy"
Global Times (05/04/2011) Xu Tianran
Japan: Fearing tsunami, Japan orders undamaged nuclear plant to suspend operations
"Japan orders nuclear plant to suspend operations"
New York Times (05/06/2011) Hiroko Tabuchi
"Botswana alcohol policy and the presidential levy controversy"
Addiction 05/2011 Joseph M. N. Pitso and Isidore S. Obot
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2011.03365.x/abstract (registration required)
"How Maryland increased infection prevention and control activity in long-term care facilities, 2003-2008"
American Journal of Infection Control 05/2011 Brenda J. Roup and Joseph M. Scaletta
http://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(10)00941-7/abstract (registration required)
"Nursing home deficiency citations for infection control"
American Journal of Infection Control 05/2011 Nicholas G. Castle, et al.
http://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(11)00111-8/abstract (registration required)
"Surveillance Provinciale des Infections Nosocomiales (SPIN) Program: Implementation of a mandatory surveillance program for central line-associated bloodstream infections"
American Journal of Infection Control 05/2011 Patricia S. Fontela, et al.
http://www.ajicjournal.org/article/S0196-6553(10)00891-6/abstract (registration required)
"Supporting equitable food systems through food assistance at farmers' markets"
American Journal of Public Health 05/2011 Paula Jones and Rajiv Bhatia
"Water rights and water fights: Preventing and resolving conflicts before they boil over"
American Journal of Public Health 05/2011 Barry S. Levy and Victor W. Sidel
"Children's vulnerability to toxic chemicals: a challenge and opportunity to strengthen health and environmental policy"
Health Affairs 05/2011 Philip J. Landrigan and Lynn R. Goldman
"Lessons learned from flame retardant use and regulation could enhance future control of potentially hazardous chemicals"
Health Affairs 05/2011 Phil Brown and Alissa Cordner
"Protecting food safety: More needs to be done to keep pace with scientific advances and the changing food supply"
Health Affairs 05/2011 Erik D. Olson
"Reducing the staggering costs of environmental disease in children, estimated at $76.6 billion in 2008"
Health Affairs 05/2011 Leonardo Trasande and Yinghua Liu
"Why the Toxic Substances Control Act needs an overhaul, and how to strengthen oversight of chemicals in the interim"
Health Affairs 05/2011 Sarah A. Vogel and Jody A. Roberts
"Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2006 Human Immunodeficiency Virus testing recommendations and state testing laws"
Journal of the American Medical Association 05/04/2011 Sarah Neff and Ronald Goldschmidt
"Vaccine liability in the Supreme Court: Forging a social compact"
Journal of the American Medical Association 05/11/2011 John D. Kraemer and Lawrence O. Gostin
"Evaluation of Alabama public school wellness policies and state school mandate implementation"
Journal of School Health 05/2011 Alisha B. Gaines, Steven R. Lonis-Shumate, and Sareen S. Gropper
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2011.00588.x/full (subscription required)
"Reduction in overdose mortality after the opening of North America's first medically supervised safer injecting facility: a retrospective population-based study"
The Lancet 04/23/2011 Brandon DL Marshall, et al.
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(10)62353-7/fulltext (subscription required)
"Safe injection facilities save lives"
The Lancet 04/23/2011 Chris Beyrer
http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(11)60132-3/fulltext (subscription required)
"Strengthening the regulation of herbal medicines in Europe"
The Lancet 04/30/2011
"UK moves to ensure 'access to unlicensed herbal medicines' "
The Lancet 04/30/2011 David Holmes
"State smoke-free laws for worksites, restaurants, and bars --- United States, 2000—2010"
Morbidity & Mortality Weekly Report 04/22/2011 Michael Tynan, et al.
"The ACO regulations — some answers, more questions"
New England Journal of Medicine 04/28/2011 John K. Iglehart
"The Freedom of Information Act: Implications for Public health policy and practice"
Public Health Reports 05/2011 Mitchell Berger
Alabama: Conviction for failure to meet city's requirements for a wastewater system affirmed
Peak v. City of Tuscaloosa
Court of Criminal Appeals of Alabama
Case No. CR-09-0805
Decided April 29, 2011
Opinion by Judge Welch
California: City ordinance requiring spaying and neutering of dogs and cats upheld
Concerned Dog Owners of California, et al. v. City of Los Angeles
Court of Appeals of California, Second District, Division One
Case No. B218003
Filed April 29, 2011
Opinion by Judge Johnson
California: Injunction to comply with health code provisions for hazardous materials denied
Cox v. Louisiana et al.
Court of Appeals of California, Second District, Division Three
Case No. B223941
Filed April 27, 2011
Opinion by Judge Kitching
Colorado: Judgment against privatization of municipality's provision of water services affirmed
South Fork Water and Sanitation District v. Town of South Fork, Colorado
Supreme Court of Colorado, En Banc
Case No. 09SC840
Decided April 25, 2011
Opinion by Justice Hobbs
Connecticut: Complaint alleging pollution after nuclear power increase dismissed for lack of jurisdiction
Burton v. Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc.
Supreme Court of Connecticut
Case No. SC 18603
Released April 19, 2011
Opinion by Justice Zarella
Montana: Review of involuntary medication administration policy beyond the scope of judicial authority
In the Matter of D.K.D.
Supreme Court of Montana
Case No. DA 10-0242
Decided April 14, 2011
Opinion by Justice Cotter
New York: Breach of confidentiality for HIV status treated as discrimination and not time-barred as tort
Doe v. Belmare, et al.
Supreme Court of Kings County, New York
Case No. 15908/10
Decided March 31, 2011
Opinion by Judge Knipel
New York: Regulations under State Diesel Emissions Reduction Act partially struck down
In the Matter of New York Construction Materials Association, Inc., et al. v. New York State Department of Environmental Conservation
Appellate Division of the Supreme Court of New York, Third Department
Case No. 510593
Decided April 21, 2011
Opinion by Judge Garry
Washington: Judgment dismissing liability of health department for sewage systems affirmed
Fishburn v. Pierce County Planning and Land Services Department, et al.
Court of Appeals of Washington, Division Two
Case No. 40429-0-11
Filed April 26, 2011
Opinion by Judge Van Deren
Federal: Judgment for tribes alleging environmental health effects from phosphate plants upheld
Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of the Fort Hall Reservation v. U.S. Department of the Interior, et al.
U.S. District Court for the District of Idaho
Case No. 4:10-CV-004-BLW
Decided May 3, 2011
Opinion by Chief Judge Winmill
https://ecf.idd.uscourts.gov/cgi-bin/ShowIndex.pl (registration required)
Federal: State interest in protecting public health during physicians' use of lasers recognized Charleston v. Salon Secrets Day Spa, Inc.
U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania
Civil Action No. 08-5889
Decided April 25, 2011
Opinion by Judge Kelly
https://ecf.paed.uscourts.gov/cgi-bin/ShowIndex.pl (registration required)
Federal: 1st Amendment challenge to regulation of dietary health claims partially remanded Alliance for Natural Health U.S. v. Sebelius
U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia
Civil Action No. 09-1546 (BAH)
Decided April 13, 2011
Opinion by Judge Howell
https://ecf.dcd.uscourts.gov/cgi-bin/login.pl (registration required)
Federal: Motion for clarification regarding categories and sharing of tobacco marketing data granted
United States v. Philip Morris U.S.A. Inc., et al.
U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia
Civil Action No. 99-2496
Decided April 19, 2011
Opinion by Judge Kessler
https://ecf.dcd.uscourts.gov/cgi-bin/login.pl (registration required)
Federal: Denial of federal citizen suit over disposal of unregulated waste reversed
Adkins v. VIM Recycling, Inc., et al.
U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit
Case No. 10-2237
Decided May 3, 2011
Opinion by Judge Hamilton
Federal: Judgment for inmate alleging neglect of health care needs under 8th Amendment affirmed
Schaub v. VonWald
U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit
Case No. 10-1280
Filed April 16, 2011
Opinion by Judge Benton
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The News is published by the Public Health Law Program, Office for State, Tribal, Local, and Territorial Support, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS). Lindsay Culp, J.D., M.P.H., Editor; Abigail Ferrell, J.D., M.P.A., Writer. Special thanks to Tara Ramanathan, J.D., M.P.H., for her help on this issue.