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1 Wenger, Etienne, McDermott, Richard, Snyder, William M. Cultivating Communities of Practice. Harvard Business School Press. Boston, MA. 2002.

2 Wenger E. Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning and Identity. New York: Cambridge University Press. 1998.

3 Wenger E. Communities of Practice: In Lesser EL, Fontaine MA, Slusher JA. Eds. The Key to Knowledge Strategy. Knowledge and Communities. Wobrurn (MA): Butterworth-Heinemann; 2000.

4 Snyder WM, Wenger E, de Sousa Briggs X. Communities of practice in government: Leveraging knowledge for performance. The Public Manager 2003; 32(4)17–22.

5 Israel BA, Schulz AJ, van Olphen J. Review of community-based research: Assessing partnership approaches to improve public health. Annual Review of Public Health, 1998, 19:173–202.

6 Saint-Onge H. Wallace D. Leveraging Communities of Practice for Strategic Advantage. WoBrurn (MA): Butterworth-Heinemann, 2003.

7 Snyder WM, de Sousa Briggs X. Communities of Practice: A New Tool for Government Managers. IMB Center for the Business of Government. November 2003

8 Wagenaar S, Hulsebosch J. From "a meeting" to "a learning community" Community of Practice theory-informed facilitation of an inter-organizational community of practice: the case of the e-collaboration learning community. Group Facilitation: A Research and Applications Journal, 2008, 9:4–25.

9 Wenger, Etienne. Knowledge management as a doughnut: Shaping your knowledge strategy through communities of practice. Ivey Business Journal, Improving the Practice of Knowledge Management. January/February 2004.

10 Strock J. Hill PA. Knowledge diffusion through "strategic communities." Sloan Management Review, Winter 2000:63–74.

11 Nickols F. Distance Consulting. [online]. 2000. [cited January 28, 2009].

12 Wenger E, McDermott R, Snyder WM. (2002). Cultivating Communities of Practice: A Guide to Managing Knowledge–Seven Principles for Cultivating Communities of Practice. Harvard Business School Archive. [online]. 2002 [cited June 8, 2008].

13 Synder WM, Wenger E. Our World as a Learning System: A Communities-of-Practice Approach. In Conner ML, Clawson JG, Eds. Create a Learning Culture: Strategy, Practice, and Technology. Cambridge University Press. 2004.

14 Agranoff, R. Levering Networks: A Guide for Public Managers Working across Organizations. IMB Center for the Business of Government. March 2003.

15 National Park Service. Rivers, Trails, and Conservation Assistance Program. [online]. [cited November 2008].

16 Brown JS, Duguid P. Organizational learning and communities of practice: Toward a unified view of working, learning and innovation. Organizational Science 1991;2(1).

17 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Impact and Value: Telling your Programs Story. Atlanta, GA: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Oral Health, 2007.

18 Denning, Steven. A Leaders Guide to Storytelling: Mastering the Art and Discipline of Business Narrative. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; 2005.

19 Kahan S. Etienne Wenger on communities of practice: Engagement, identity and innovation. The Journal of Association Leadership, March 2004.

20 Douthwaite B. Enabling Innovation: A Practical Approach to Understanding and Fostering Technological Innovation. London: Zed Books; 2001.

21 Brown JS, Duguid P. 1991. Organizational Learning and Communities of Practice: Toward a Unified View of Working, Learning, and Innovation. Organization Science. Vol 2, No. 1. The Institute of Management Science; 1991.

22 Raymond ES. The Cathedral and the Bazaar. [online] 1999 [cited November 2008].

23 Vincent L. Innovation midwives: Sustaining innovation streams in established companies. Research-Technology Management 2005;48(1):41–49.

24 Wenger E. Communities of Practice: Learning as a Social System. Systems Thinker, 1998.

25 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Framework for program evaluation in public health. Atlanta, GA: MMWR 1999 (NORR-11): 1-40.



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