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Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal
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Volume 8: No. 6, November 2011

ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Age and Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Prepregnancy Smoking Among Women Who Delivered Live Births

Race/ethnicity Total, % (95% CI) 18-24 y, % (95% CI) ≥25 y, % (95% CI)
All racial/ethnic groups 22.5 (22.2-22.8) 33.2 (32.6-33.8) 17.6 (17.2-17.9)
Non-Hispanic white 27.8 (27.4-28.2) 46.4 (45.5-47.4) 20.7 (20.3-21.2)
Non-Hispanic black 17.1 (16.5-17.8) 18.5 (17.5-19.7) 16.1 (15.2-17.0)
Hispanic 10.1 (9.6-10.7) 13.0 (12.1-14.0) 8.3 (7.7-9.0)
Alaska Native 47.8 (45.9-49.8) 55.6 (52.8-58.4) 40.4 (37.8-43.1)
American Indian 40.4 (37.6-43.3) 46.9 (42.8-51.2) 35.2 (31.5-39.0)
Asian/Pacific Islander 8.2 (7.5-8.9) 19.5 (17.0-22.2) 6.1 (5.5-6.8)

Figure 1. Prepregnancy smoking prevalence by maternal race/ethnicity and age among women who recently delivered a live birth, 32 states and New York City, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, 2004-2008. Prepregnancy smoking prevalence is defined as the percentage of women who recently delivered a live birth who self-reported smoking during the 3 months before pregnancy; error bars represent 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for prepregnancy smoking prevalence. Prepregnancy prevalence comparing women aged 18 to 24 years with women aged 25 years or older was significant (P < .05, χ2 test) for the overall study population and within all racial/ethnic groups. PRAMS data available for 2004-2008, except where noted: Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado, Delaware (2007-2008), Florida (2004-2005), Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana (2004), Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts (2007-2008), Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi (2004, 2006, 2008), Missouri (2007), Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico (2004-2005), New York (excluding New York City), New York City (2004-2007), North Carolina (2004-2005, 2007-2008), Ohio (2005-2008), Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina (2004-2007), Tennessee (2008), Utah, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin (2007-2008), and Wyoming (2007-2008).

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Race/ethnicity and Age, y Average No. of Cigarettes Smoked Per Day
≤5 6-20 >20
All racial/ethnic groups, y
18-24 25.2 62.9 11.9
≥25 28.4 59.8 11.9
Non-Hispanic white, y
18-24 19.7 67.8 12.5
≥25 25.0 62.6 12.5
Non-Hispanic black, y
18-24 41.2 48.6 10.2
≥25 35.9 53.0 11.1
Hispanic, y
18-24 49.8 40.6 9.6
≥25 49.4 43.6 7.0
Alaska Native, y
18-24 45.1 49.7 5.1
≥25 43.3 50.6 6.1
American Indian, y
18-24 31.8 58.0 10.2
≥25 25.8 60.2 13.9
Asian/Pacific Islander, y
18-24 38.3 49.7 12.0
≥25 45.3 46.2 8.5

Figure 2. Proportion of prepregnancy smokers by average number of cigarettes smoked per day, by maternal race/ethnicity and age among women who recently delivered a live birth, 32 states and New York City, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS), 2004-2008. Prepregnancy smoking is defined as self-reported smoking of any amount of cigarettes during the 3 months before pregnancy. Proportion of prepregnancy smokers by average number of cigarettes smoked per day was significant (P < .05, χ2 test) comparing women aged 18 to 24 years with women aged 25 years or older for the overall study population and among non-Hispanic whites. PRAMS data available for 2004-2008, except where noted: Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado, Delaware (2007-2008), Florida (2004-2005), Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana (2004), Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts (2007-2008), Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi (2004, 2006, 2008), Missouri (2007), Nebraska, New Jersey, New Mexico (2004-2005), New York (excluding New York City), New York City (2004-2007), North Carolina (2004-2005, 2007-2008), Ohio (2005-2008), Oklahoma, Oregon, Rhode Island, South Carolina (2004-2007), Tennessee (2008), Utah, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin (2007-2008), and Wyoming (2007-2008).

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The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


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