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Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal
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Volume 8: No. 6, November 2011

ORIGINAL RESEARCH
Demographic and Geographic Differences in Exposure to Secondhand Smoke in Missouri Workplaces, 2007-2008

Characteristic Men Women
Rurality
Urban 14% 7%
Large rural 19% 10%
Small rural 22% 11%
Isolated 25% 14%
Education
<High school 34% 17%
High school or GED 24% 11%
Some college 20% 9%
College graduate 8% 4%

Figure 1. Percentage of men and women employed indoors and exposed to workplace secondhand smoke, Missouri County-Level Study, 2007-2008. Abbreviation: GED, General Educational Development certificate. Rurality was determined by using the Rural-Urban Continuum codes (www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/rurality/ruralurbcon/).

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Population density for all Missouri counties is presented by quintile and ranges from 8.2 to 66.4 per square mile. Counties with much higher than expected workplace secondhand smoke exposure were Benton, Buchanan, Butler, Clark, DeKalb, Dent, Dunklin, Greene, Howell, Jefferson, New Madrid, Pemiscot, Ralls, Saint Francois, Scott, Stoddard, and Taney. Counties with much lower than expected workplace secondhand smoke exposure were Boone, Clay, Cole, Jackson, Johnson, Platte, Saint Charles, and Saint Louis. Four communities have comprehensive smokefree ordinances: 2 in Jackson County (western Missouri), 1 in Boone County (central Missouri), and 1 in Saint Louis County (eastern Missouri). These counties are in the most densely populated areas of the state.

Figure 2. Population density per square mile by county (2000 US Census), exposure to workplace secondhand smoke (2007-2008 Missouri County-Level Study [CLS]), and location of communities that enacted comprehensive smokefree ordinances just before collection of CLS data. Plus and minus signs indicate counties with significantly higher or lower than expected workplace secondhand smoke exposure. See the Methods section for more details of this analysis.

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Education Level Isolated Small rural Large rural Urban
<High school graduate 33% 28% 26% 23%
High school graduate or GED 26% 21% 20% 18%
Some college 26% 21% 19% 17%
College graduate 15% 12% 11% 9%

Figure 3. The probability of secondhand smoke exposure at work among white male nonsmokers in Missouri, by education and rurality (age held at the average 41.7 years; annual income set at the median category $35,000-$49,999). Probabilities are based on the model presented in Table 2. Area of residence (rurality) was determined by using the Rural-Urban Continuum codes (www.ers.usda.gov/briefing/rurality/ruralurbcon/).Abbreviation: GED, General Educational Development certificate.

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The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


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