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Emerging Infectious Diseases Journal
MMWR


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Volume 2: No. 2, April 2005

SPECIAL TOPIC
Childhood Obesity — What We Can Learn From Existing Data on Societal Trends, Part 2

  Percentage of school trips
1977 20.2
1990 16.6
1991 12.5

Figure 1. Walking to school as percentage of school trips among U.S. children aged five to 15 years. Author’s analysis based on data from National Personal Transportation Survey for 1977 and 1990 and the National Household Travel Survey for 2001 (9).

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  Number of trips
1977 2.2
1990 3.1
2001 3.5

Figure 2. Total number of daily trips among U.S. children aged five to 15 years. Author’s analysis based on data from National Personal Transportation Survey for 1977 and 1990 and the National Household Travel Survey for 2001 (9).

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  Miles
  Walking Bicycling
1977 0.69 1.31
1990 0.53 0.98
2001 0.59 0.94

Figure 3. Average trip length (in miles) among U.S. children aged five to 15 years. Author’s analysis based on data from National Personal Transportation Surveys for 1977 and 1990 and the National Household Travel Survey for 2001 (9).

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  Minutes
  Walking Bicycling
1977 2.7 0.3
1990 3.9 0.6
2001 6.3 2.1

Figure 4. Average active travel time (in minutes) among U.S. children aged five to 15 years. Author’s analysis based on data from National Personal Transportation Survey for 1977 and 1990 and the National Household Travel Survey for 2001 (9).

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  Percentage of students
1991 48.9
1993 52.1
1995 59.6
1997 48.8
1999 56.1
2001 51.7

Figure 5. Percentage of U.S. high school students who attended physical education class one or more days during an average school week. Data from the Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (14).

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  Percentage of students
1993 65.8
1995 63.7
1997 63.8
1999 64.7
2001 64.6

Figure 6. Percentage of U.S. high school students who exercised or participated in physical activities that made them sweat and breathe hard for at least 20 minutes on three or more of past seven days. Data from the Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (14).

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  Percentage of students
1991 41.6
1993 34.3
1995 25.4
1997 27.4
1999 29.1
2001 32.2

Figure 7. Percentage of U.S. high school students attending daily physical education classes. Data from the Youth Risk Behavioral Surveillance System, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (14).

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  Grams
  Boys Girls
  Fat Carbohydrates Fat Carbohydrates
1977–78 84.7 226.2 77.8 211.9
1989–91 72.7 245.5 69.8 241.6
1994–96, 1998 75.1 279.6 66.8 250.0

Figure 8. Daily fat and carbohydrate intake in grams per day for U.S. boys and girls aged six to 11 years. Data from Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals for 1989–91, 1994–96, and 1998 and Nationwide Food Consumption Survey 1977–78, published by Enns et al (15).

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A line graph shows three lines, one indicating protein consumption, one indicating fat consumption, and one indicating carbohydrate consumption over a 31-year period, from 1970 to 2000. The line indicating protein remains fairly constant at the 100-gram level, increasing slightly from 96 grams in 1970 to 112 grams in 2000. The line indicating fat started at 151 grams in 1970, trending slightly upward after 1980, and reached 171 grams in 2000. The line indicating carbohydrates remains fairly constant from 1970 to 1982, starting at 395 grams in 1970 to 399 grams in 1982, but then rises steadily to reach 505 grams in 2000.

Figure 9. U.S. food supply of macronutrients in grams per capita per day, 1970–2000. Data from Food Consumption Data System, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (7).

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Year Consumer Price Index Fresh fruits and vegetables Sugars and sweets Soft drinks
1978 65.2 70.7 68.3 70.8
1979 72.6 76.1 73.6 77.3
1980 82.4 81.8 90.5 86.6
1981 90.9 91.6 97.7 95.3
1982 96.5 96.7 97.5 97.8
1983 99.6 96.4 99.3 100.3
1984 103.9 106.9 103.2 101.8
1985 107.6 109.7 105.8 102.8
1986 109.6 113.0 109.0 103.6
1987 113.6 126.8 111.0 105.7
1988 118.3 136.1 114.0 105.7
1989 124.0 147.7 119.4 108.4
1990 130.7 161.0 124.7 112.1
1991 136.2 174.1 129.3 113.0
1992 140.3 171.0 133.1 114.9
1993 144.5 178.6 133.4 115.9
1994 148.2 186.7 135.2 115.7
1995 152.4 206.0 137.5 119.5
1996 156.9 211.8 143.7 119.9
1997 160.5 215.4 147.8 118.3
1998 163.0 231.2 150.2 117.5
1999 166.6 237.2 152.3 118.8
2000 172.2 238.8 154.0 123.4
2001 177.1 247.9 155.7 125.4
2002 179.9 258.4 159.0 125.6

Figure 10. Relative price changes for fresh fruits and vegetables, sugars and sweets, and soft drinks, using the period 1982–84 as the baseline (index = 100), 1978–2002. Data from Food Consumption Data System, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture (7).

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The opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the opinions of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors’ affiliated institutions. Use of trade names is for identification only and does not imply endorsement by any of the groups named above.


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