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Fifth Disease

Overview

Fifth disease is a mild rash illness caused by parvovirus B19. This disease is also called erythema infectiosum. It is more common in children than adults. A person usually gets sick within 4 to 14 days (sometimes up to 20 days) after getting infected with parvovirus B19. About 20% of children and adults who get infected with this virus will not have any symptoms.

Signs & Symptoms

The first symptoms of fifth disease are usually mild and nonspecific. The first symptoms of fifth disease are usually

  • fever,
  • runny nose, and
  • headache.

Quick Fact

Fifth disease got its name because it was fifth in a list of historical classifications of common skin rash illnesses in children.

Then, you can get a rash on your face and body
After several days, you may get a red rash on your face. This is called "slapped cheek" rash. This rash is the most recognized feature of fifth disease. It is more common in children than adults. Some people may get a second rash a few days later on their chest, back, buttocks, or arms and legs. The rash may be itchy, especially on the soles of the feet. The rash can vary in intensity and may come and go for several weeks. It usually goes away in 7 to 10 days, but it can last several weeks. As the rash starts to go away, it may look lacy.

You may also have painful or swollen joints
People with fifth disease can also develop pain and swelling in their joints (polyarthropathy syndrome). This is more common in adults, especially women. Some adults with fifth disease may only have painful joints, usually in the hands, feet, or knees, but no other symptoms. The joint pain usually lasts 1 to 3 weeks, but it can last for months or longer. It usually goes away without any long-term problems.

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Transmission

People with fifth disease are most contagious before they get rash or joint pain and swelling.

Parvovirus B19 spreads through respiratory secretions (such as saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus) when an infected person coughs or sneezes. You are most contagious when it seems like you have "just a cold" and before you get the rash or joint pain and swelling. After you get the rash, you are probably not contagious. So, it is usually safe for you to go back to work or for your child to go back to school or a child care center.

The contagious period for fifth disease is different from many other rash illnesses. For example, people with measles can spread the measles virus when they have the rash. However, people with fifth disease who weakened immune systems may be contagious for a longer amount of time.

Parvovirus B19 can also spread through blood or blood products. A pregnant woman who is infected with parvovirus B19 can pass the virus to her baby.


Diagnosis

Healthcare providers can often diagnose fifth disease just by seeing "slapped cheek" rash on a patient's face. A blood test can also be done to determine if you are susceptible or immune to parvovirus B19 infection or if you were recently infected.

Once you recover from fifth disease, you develop immunity that generally protects you from parvovirus B19 infection in the future.

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Prevention & Treatment

Prevention

People with fifth disease are most contagious when it seems like they have "just a cold" and before they get the rash or joint pain and swelling.

You can reduce your chance of being infected with parvovirus B19 or infecting others by

  • washing your hands often with soap and water
  • covering your mouth and nose when you cough or sneeze
  • not touching your eyes, nose, or mouth
  • avoiding close contact with people who are sick
  • staying home when you are sick

After you get the rash, you are probably not contagious. So, it is usually safe for you to go back to work or for your child to return to school or a child care center.

Healthcare providers who are pregnant should know about potential risks to their baby and discuss this with their doctor.

All healthcare providers and patients should follow strict infection control practices to prevent parvovirus B19 from spreading.

For information about hand washing, see CDC's Clean Hands Save Lives!

Treatment

Fifth disease is usually mild and will go away on its own. Children and adults who are otherwise healthy usually recover completely.

Treatment usually involves relieving symptoms, such as fever, itching, and joint pain and swelling.

People who have complications from fifth disease should see their healthcare provider for medical treatment.

There is no vaccine or medicine that can prevent parvovirus B19 infection.


Complications

Fifth disease is usually mild for children and adults who are otherwise healthy. But, for some people, fifth disease cause serious health complications.

People with weakened immune systems caused by leukemia, cancer, organ transplants, or HIV infection are at risk for serious complications from fifth disease. It can cause chronic anemia that requires medical treatment.

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