Economic Evaluation of Public Health Preparedness and Response Efforts Series Contents    HHS    CDC

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Series Contents

Open this section in a new window Preface
Open this section in a new window What Are These Tutorials About?
Open this section in a new window Navigation
Open this section in a new window How to Use the Tutorials
Open this section in a new window Disclaimer
Open this section in a new window Getting Started
Open this section in a new window A Fun Example
Open this section in a new window The Real Tutorials

Open this tutorial in a new window. An Example: Selecting a Vacation
Open this section in a new window What Do Vacations and Economic Analyses Have in Common?
Open this section in a new window The Sample Problem
Open this section in a new window The Questions You Might Ask To Decide
Open this section in a new window Q1. Is the Problem Well-Defined?
Open this section in a new window Q2. Is the Problem Important?
Open this section in a new window Q3. Would an Economic Analysis Help You Decide Which Is the Better Choice?
Open this section in a new window Q4. From Whose Point of View Should You Do Your Analysis?
Open this section in a new window Q5. Is Each of the Alternatives Feasible?
Open this section in a new window Q6. What Are the Benefits from Each of the Alternatives?
Open this section in a new window Q7. What are the Costs for Each Alternative?
Open this section in a new window Q8. What is the Time Frame That You Should Consider for the Analysis?
Open this section in a new window Q9. What is the Analytic Horizon, the Time for which You Should Measure the Costs and Benefits?
Open this section in a new window Q10. Which Study Format Should We Use?
Open this section in a new window What is the Best Study Format for Our Example?
Open this section in a new window Q11. How Should We Measure Outcomes?
Open this section in a new window How Do You Deal with the Cruise Benefits That Involve Emotion?
Open this section in a new window The Results of the Economic Analysis
Open this section in a new window What Next?

Open this tutorial in a new window. Introduction to Economic Evaluation
Open this section in a new window What Is an Economic Evaluation?
Open this section in a new window Why Should Economic Evaluations Be Conducted?
Open this section in a new window Interventions and Programs Must Be Feasible
Open this section in a new window Biologic Feasibility
Open this section in a new window Epidemiologic Effectiveness
Open this section in a new window Political and Social Feasibility
Open this section in a new window Crucial Questions
Open this section in a new window Is the Program Affordable?
Open this section in a new window Which Costs and Outcomes Are Attributable to the Program?
Open this section in a new window How Does the Program Compare with Other Programs?
Open this section in a new window A Benefits Versus Costs Example
Open this section in a new window What Forms of Economic Evaluation Can We Use?
Open this section in a new window Cost Analysis
Open this section in a new window Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Open this section in a new window Cost-Utility Analysis
Open this section in a new window Cost-Benefit Analysis
Open this section in a new window How Do We Determine Which Form of Evaluation To Use?
Open this section in a new window By the Alternatives To Be Compared and Whether Outcomes Are To Be Examined
Open this section in a new window By the Decision-Making Level
Open this section in a new window At the Highest Level
Open this section in a new window At the Next Level
Open this section in a new window At the Micro Level
Open this section in a new window What Next?

Open this tutorial in a new window. Framing an Economic Evaluation
Open this section in a new window Framing Is the First Step
Open this section in a new window Framing Questions
Open this section in a new window 1. What Do We Need To Know?
Open this section in a new window What Is the Problem That Will Be Analyzed?
Open this section in a new window Why Is This Problem Important?
Open this section in a new window What Aspects of the Problem Need To Be Explained?
Open this section in a new window What Questions Need To Be Answered?
Open this section in a new window An Example: Defining the Problem
Open this section in a new window 2. How Are We Going To Find Out?
Open this section in a new window Which Intervention(s) Will Be Analyzed?
Open this section in a new window Who is the Audience?
Open this section in a new window An Example: An Influenza Vaccination Program
Open this section in a new window What is the Study Perspective?
Open this section in a new window Different Perspectives
Open this section in a new window Patients
Open this section in a new window Providers
Open this section in a new window Payers
Open this section in a new window Health-Care System
Open this section in a new window Society
Open this section in a new window Choosing a Perspective
Open this section in a new window Which Perspective Is Appropriate?
Open this section in a new window Using Multiple Perspectives
Open this section in a new window Relating the Perspectives
Open this section in a new window What is the Study Time Frame?
Open this section in a new window Seasonal Variation in Program Activity Level
Open this section in a new window Life Cycle of the Intervention
Open this section in a new window Future Advances in Technology
Open this section in a new window What Is the Analytic Horizon of the Study?
Open this section in a new window Which Study Format Should Be Chosen?
Open this section in a new window Prospective Study
Open this section in a new window Retrospective Study
Open this section in a new window An Example: Prospective Versus Retrospective Study Formats
Open this section in a new window Model
Open this section in a new window Advantages and Disadvantages
Open this section in a new window Which Costs Will Be Included?
Open this section in a new window Tangible Costs
Open this section in a new window Intangible Costs
Open this section in a new window Which Costs to Include
Open this section in a new window Which Outcome Measure(s) Will Be Used?
Open this section in a new window What are the Alternative Interventions?
Open this section in a new window Feasibility
Open this section in a new window Mutually Exclusive
Open this section in a new window Exhaustive
Open this section in a new window Outcomes
Open this section in a new window Which Summary Measure(s) Should Be Used?
Open this section in a new window Significance of Sensitivity Analysis
Open this section in a new window Identify Variables With the Most Influence
Open this section in a new window Assess the Impact Throughout Populations
Open this section in a new window Test Robustness of the Results
Open this section in a new window A Framing-the-Study Example: Adopting a Research Strategy
Open this section in a new window Summary
Open this section in a new window Test Your Understanding
Open this section in a new window A Checklist for Framing the Study
Open this section in a new window Glossary — Framing

Open this tutorial in a new window. Cost Analysis
Open this section in a new window Introduction
Open this section in a new window When Can We Use Cost Analysis?
Open this section in a new window What are Costs?
Open this section in a new window Costs in Perfect Markets
Open this section in a new window Costs in Imperfect Markets
Open this section in a new window Using Cost-To-Charge Ratios (CCRs)
Open this section in a new window Micro-Costing
Open this section in a new window Surveys
Open this section in a new window Costs of Nontraded Goods and Services
Open this section in a new window Using Market Prices for Similar Resources
Open this section in a new window Volunteer Time
Open this section in a new window Charity Goods
Open this section in a new window Using Similar Estimates from the Literature
Open this section in a new window Discussing Qualitatively
Open this section in a new window Note
Open this section in a new window Why is Cost Analysis Important?
Open this section in a new window Planning and Cost Projections
Open this section in a new window Assessing Efficiency
Open this section in a new window Assessing Priorities
Open this section in a new window Accountability
Open this section in a new window Assessing Equity
Open this section in a new window Framing a Cost Analysis
Open this section in a new window 1. Defining the Problem
Open this section in a new window Example: Antigua's Health Education and Condom Distribution (HECD) Program
Open this section in a new window 2. Defining the Options
Open this section in a new window Example: Antigua's Program Options
Open this section in a new window 3. Defining the Audience
Open this section in a new window Example: Antigua's Program Audience
Open this section in a new window 4. Defining the Perspective
Open this section in a new window Example: Antigua's Program Perspective
Open this section in a new window 5. Defining the Time Frame
Open this section in a new window Example: Antigua's Program Time Frame
Open this section in a new window 6. Defining the Analytic Horizon
Open this section in a new window 7. Choosing a Format
Open this section in a new window Example: Antigua's Program — Retrospective
Open this section in a new window Example: Antigua's Program — Prospective
Open this section in a new window Example Summary: Antigua's HECD Program
Open this section in a new window Test Your Understanding
Open this section in a new window Cost of the Intervention or Program
Open this section in a new window Framing the Cost Analysis
Open this section in a new window Developing a Cost Inventory
Open this section in a new window Example: Cost Inventory
Open this section in a new window Classification Systems
Open this section in a new window Major Classification Systems
Open this section in a new window Classification by Cost Type
Open this section in a new window Program Costs
Open this section in a new window Costs to Participants
Open this section in a new window Costs to Others
Open this section in a new window Combining Classification Systems
Open this section in a new window Cost Inventory Summary
Open this section in a new window Evaluating Resource Use
Open this section in a new window Fixed Program Costs
Open this section in a new window Variable Program Costs
Open this section in a new window Sources
Open this section in a new window Calculating Cost Analysis Results
Open this section in a new window Total Cost
Open this section in a new window Average Cost
Open this section in a new window Example: Calculating Average Cost for the Antigua HECD Program
Open this section in a new window When Can Average Cost Be Used?
Open this section in a new window To Compare Subgroups
Open this section in a new window To Compare Efficiencies of Various Programs and Interventions
Open this section in a new window To Determine Economies of Scale
Open this section in a new window An Example: Clinic Costs
Open this section in a new window Marginal Cost
Open this section in a new window Example: Marginal Cost
Open this section in a new window Problem
Open this section in a new window Questions
Open this section in a new window Answers
Open this section in a new window Situation A: 24 Patients Scheduled
Open this section in a new window Situation B: 25 Patients Scheduled
Open this section in a new window Conclusion
Open this section in a new window When Can Marginal Costs Be Used?
Open this section in a new window Sensitivity Analysis
Open this section in a new window An Example: The Role and Importance of Sensitivity Analysis
Open this section in a new window Types of Sensitivity Analysis
Open this section in a new window Threshold Analysis
Open this section in a new window Case Study: Hepatitis B Vaccination Program — Denver, CO, 1996–1997
Open this section in a new window Context
Open this section in a new window Source of This Study
Open this section in a new window Methods
Open this section in a new window Calculating Societal Costs
Open this section in a new window School-Based Program
Open this section in a new window Educational and Outreach Costs
Open this section in a new window Vaccination Costs
Open this section in a new window Management Costs
Open this section in a new window PacifiCare HMO Vaccination Delivery Program
Open this section in a new window Cost to the PacifiCare Network HMO
Open this section in a new window Cost to the Patient
Open this section in a new window Total Costs
Open this section in a new window Unit (Per Dose and Per Series) Costs
Open this section in a new window Parents' Productivity Loss Per Visit
Open this section in a new window Test Your Understanding
Open this section in a new window Cost of Illness
Open this section in a new window Why Should We Calculate the COI?
Open this section in a new window Determining COI
Open this section in a new window Framing the Cost Analysis
Open this section in a new window Developing a Cost Inventory
Open this section in a new window Direct Costs
Open this section in a new window Indirect Costs
Open this section in a new window Intangible Costs
Open this section in a new window Estimating Resource Use and Calculating Results
Open this section in a new window Case Study: Hepatitis A Outbreak — Denver, Colorado, 1992
Open this section in a new window Context
Open this section in a new window Source of This Study
Open this section in a new window Methods
Open this section in a new window Calculating Costs
Open this section in a new window Societal Costs
Open this section in a new window Disease-Control Costs
Open this section in a new window Health Department Costs
Open this section in a new window Costs of Testing Suspected Hepatitis A Cases
Open this section in a new window Costs of Immune Globulin Administration
Open this section in a new window Business Costs
Open this section in a new window COI
Open this section in a new window Productivity Loss Detail
Open this section in a new window Data Collected
Open this section in a new window Results: COI Estimates
Open this section in a new window Conclusion
Open this section in a new window Advantages and Shortcomings of the COI Approach
Open this section in a new window Test Your Understanding
Open this section in a new window Adjusting Costs
Open this section in a new window Discounting Future Costs
Open this section in a new window What Is the Appropriate Discount Rate?
Open this section in a new window How Do We Discount Future Costs?
Open this section in a new window Example 1: Discounting Future Costs
Open this section in a new window Question: Which of the Two Programs Is Less Costly?
Open this section in a new window Answer: Use a Calculator or the Discount Factor Table.
Open this section in a new window Example 2: Discounting Future Costs
Open this section in a new window Question: What Are the Total Program Costs?
Open this section in a new window Answer
Open this section in a new window Why Are We Discounting the First Year?
Open this section in a new window Example: Effect of Starting Discounting in the First Year
Open this section in a new window Adjusting for Inflation
Open this section in a new window What Is Inflation?
Open this section in a new window Why Do We Need To Adjust for Inflation in Cost Analysis?
Open this section in a new window CPI — Medical Care Component
Open this section in a new window How Do We Adjust for Inflation?
Open this section in a new window An Example: Adjusting Prices for Inflation
Open this section in a new window Adjusting Earnings to Base Year Monetary Units
Open this section in a new window Example: Earnings Adjustment
Open this section in a new window Annuitizing Capital Costs
Open this section in a new window What are Capital Costs?
Open this section in a new window Why Should Capital Costs Be Annuitized?
Open this section in a new window How Do We Annuitize Capital Costs?
Open this section in a new window Step 1: Calculate the Present Value (PV) of the Capital Item's Scrap Value.
Open this section in a new window Step 2: Calculate the Item's Annuity Factor (A).
Open this section in a new window Step 3: Calculate the Item's Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC).
Open this section in a new window An Example: Annuitizing Capital Costs
Open this section in a new window Step 1: Calculate the Present Value of the Scrap Value (PV)
Open this section in a new window Step 2: Calculate the Annuity Factor (A)
Open this section in a new window Step 3: Calculate the Equivalent Annual Cost (EAC)
Open this section in a new window Test Your Understanding
Open this section in a new window Appendices
Open this section in a new window Appendix A. Cost-To-Charge Ratio Table
Open this section in a new window Appendix B. Consumer Price Index Table
Open this section in a new window Appendix C. Discount Factor Table
Open this section in a new window Appendix D. Annuity Factor Table
Open this section in a new window Glossary — Cost Analysis

Open this tutorial in a new window. Cost Effectiveness Analysis
Open this section in a new window Introduction
Open this section in a new window Why Is CEA Important?
Open this section in a new window Advantages of CEA over CBA and CUA
Open this section in a new window A CEA Example
Open this section in a new window When Can We Use CEA?
Open this section in a new window Interventions with Shared Goals
Open this section in a new window A Specific Population
Open this section in a new window Sound Evidence
Open this section in a new window Possibly Inefficient Programs
Open this section in a new window Test Your Understanding
Open this section in a new window Framing CEA
Open this section in a new window Defining the Problem
Open this section in a new window An Example: Defining the Problem
Open this section in a new window Adopting a Research Strategy
Open this section in a new window What Intervention(s) Will Be Analyzed?
Open this section in a new window Who Is the Audience?
Open this section in a new window Whose Perspective?
Open this section in a new window What is the Time Frame?
Open this section in a new window What is the Analytic Horizon?
Open this section in a new window What is the Study Format?
Open this section in a new window What Outcome Measures Are We Interested In?
Open this section in a new window What Are the Available Alternatives?
Open this section in a new window Which Costs Are Included in the CEA?
Open this section in a new window Cost of Productivity Losses Averted
Open this section in a new window An Example
Open this section in a new window Test Your Understanding
Open this section in a new window Which Outcomes are Relevant in CEA?
Open this section in a new window Introduction
Open this section in a new window Outcome Implications in CEA
Open this section in a new window Outcomes: A Hypothetical Example
Open this section in a new window The Problem
Open this section in a new window The Data
Open this section in a new window Promote Child Safety Seat Use
Open this section in a new window Promote Seat Belt Use
Open this section in a new window Reduce Alcohol-Impaired Driving
Open this section in a new window Recommendations
Open this section in a new window Question
Open this section in a new window Answer
Open this section in a new window Decision Analysis
Open this section in a new window Decision Tree Components
Open this section in a new window The "Goal" Component
Open this section in a new window The "Alternative" Component
Open this section in a new window The "Chance Event" Component
Open this section in a new window The "Payoff" Component
Open this section in a new window Expected Value
Open this section in a new window Steps in Decision Analysis
Open this section in a new window Sensitivity Analysis
Open this section in a new window Advantages and Limitations of Decision Analysis
Open this section in a new window An Example: Decision Analysis
Open this section in a new window Test Your Understanding
Open this section in a new window Interpreting CEA Results
Open this section in a new window Cost Effectiveness Ratios
Open this section in a new window ACER
Open this section in a new window An Example of an ACER
Open this section in a new window MCER
Open this section in a new window ICER
Open this section in a new window An Example: Decision Analysis CERs
Open this section in a new window Exclusion Criteria
Open this section in a new window Notes for Table Columns
Open this section in a new window ACER
Open this section in a new window MCER
Open this section in a new window ICER
Open this section in a new window ICER Calculation for Program C
Open this section in a new window Decision Guidelines
Open this section in a new window When Assessing Independent Programs
Open this section in a new window When Assessing a Mix of Independent and Mutually Exclusive Programs
Open this section in a new window Within Each Group
Open this section in a new window Presentation of Results
Open this section in a new window Test Your Understanding
Open this section in a new window Glossary — CEA

Open this tutorial in a new window. Cost Benefit Analysis
Open this section in a new window Introduction
Open this section in a new window Cost Benefit Analysis Defined
Open this section in a new window Historical Background
Open this section in a new window When do we use CBA?
Open this section in a new window Deciding Whether To Implement a Specific Program
Open this section in a new window Choosing Among Competing Options
Open this section in a new window Choosing and Setting Priorities from a Group of Potential Programs
Open this section in a new window What are costs and benefits?
Open this section in a new window Framing a CBA
Open this section in a new window 1. Defining the Problem
Open this section in a new window Influenza Vaccination Example: CBA of a Strategy To Vaccinate Healthy Working Adults Against Influenza
Open this section in a new window 2. Identifying Interventions
Open this section in a new window Influenza Vaccination Example: Interventions
Open this section in a new window 3. Defining the Audience
Open this section in a new window Influenza Vaccination Example: Audience
Open this section in a new window 4. Defining the Perspective
Open this section in a new window Influenza Vaccination Example: Perspective
Open this section in a new window 5. Defining the Time Frame and Analytic Horizon
Open this section in a new window Influenza Vaccination Example: Program Time and Analytic Horizon
Open this section in a new window 6. Defining the Discount Rate
Open this section in a new window Influenza Vaccination Example: Discount Rate
Open this section in a new window Test Your Understanding
Open this section in a new window Valuation of Health Outcomes
Open this section in a new window Identifying Intervention Outcomes
Open this section in a new window Health Outcomes
Open this section in a new window Nonhealth Outcomes
Open this section in a new window Intangible Outcomes
Open this section in a new window General Health Valuation Methods
Open this section in a new window Cost-of-Illness Method
Open this section in a new window Nonmarket Valuation Methods
Open this section in a new window 1. Revealed Preference Method (RPM)
Open this section in a new window Hedonic Pricing (Wage)
Open this section in a new window Hypothetical Example: A Hedonic Wage Model of Anthrax in the Mail
Open this section in a new window Averting Behavior
Open this section in a new window Shortcomings of the Revealed Preference Methods
Open this section in a new window 2. Stated Preference Method
Open this section in a new window Theoretical Basis for the CVM
Open this section in a new window Example: Security Service
Open this section in a new window Effect of Price Changes
Open this section in a new window When No Market Exists
Open this section in a new window Indifference Curves
Open this section in a new window Properties/Assumptions of Indifference Curves
Open this section in a new window Combining Indifference Curves and the Budget Line
Open this section in a new window Price Increase (Negative Welfare Change)
Open this section in a new window Practical Application
Open this section in a new window Hypothetical Example: Willingness to Pay for Higher Security (Reduced Risk of Bioterrorist Attack in the United States)
Open this section in a new window Steps in Conducting a Contingent Valuation Study
Open this section in a new window 1. Reconnaissance Survey
Open this section in a new window 2. Sampling Method and Sample Size Calculation
Open this section in a new window 3. Developing the Survey Questionnaire
Open this section in a new window 4. Conducting a Pilot Survey
Open this section in a new window 5. Administering the Survey
Open this section in a new window 6. Collating, Analyzing, and Calculating WTP
Open this section in a new window Advantages and Limitations of the WTP Method
Open this section in a new window Test Your Understanding
Open this section in a new window Calculating and Presenting the Summary Measures
Open this section in a new window Net Present Value
Open this section in a new window Benefit-Cost Ratio
Open this section in a new window Example: CBA of School-Based Tuberculin Screening Program
Open this section in a new window Findings: Tuberculin Screening
Open this section in a new window Advantages and Limitations of BCR as a Summary Measure
Open this section in a new window Advantages and Limitations of NPV as a Summary Measure
Open this section in a new window Incremental Summary Measures
Open this section in a new window Example: Incremental NPV for the Screen-All Strategy
Open this section in a new window Conducting a Sensitivity Analysis
Open this section in a new window Advantages and Limitations of CBA
Open this section in a new window Test Your Understanding
Open this section in a new window Glossary — Cost Benefit Analysis

Case Studies:
Open this tutorial in a new window. Case Study: Cost Analysis of Tuberculosis Control
Open this section in a new window Background
Open this section in a new window The Problem
Open this section in a new window Step 1: Framing the Study
Open this section in a new window About the Study Problem
Open this section in a new window The Audience for the Study
Open this section in a new window The Perspective for the Study
Open this section in a new window Patient Perspective
Open this section in a new window Provider Perspective of the TB-Control Program
Open this section in a new window Health System Perspective
Open this section in a new window State X Perspective of the State Budget
Open this section in a new window Societal Perspective
Open this section in a new window The Alternative Strategies/Options That Will Be Considered
Open this section in a new window The Study Time Frame/Analytic Horizon
Open this section in a new window The Study Format
Open this section in a new window An Outcome/Output Measure
Open this section in a new window Summary: Step 1
Open this section in a new window Step 2: Evaluating Resource Use
Open this section in a new window More Background
Open this section in a new window Costs To Be Considered
Open this section in a new window Should You Include Patient Costs?
Open this section in a new window List the Direct Costs
Open this section in a new window Provide Examples of Indirect Costs
Open this section in a new window Intangible Costs
Open this section in a new window Cost Classification Systems
Open this section in a new window Sources for Quantifying Direct Costs
Open this section in a new window Getting Values of Direct Cost Resources
Open this section in a new window Summary: Step 2
Open this section in a new window Step 3: Adjusting Costs and Calculating Results
Open this section in a new window Adjusting Costs
Open this section in a new window Calculating Results
Open this section in a new window Background
Open this section in a new window The Problem
Open this section in a new window Step 1: Framing the Study
Open this section in a new window About the Study Problem
Open this section in a new window The Audience for the Study
Open this section in a new window The Perspective for the Study
Open this section in a new window Patient Perspective
Open this section in a new window Provider Perspective of the TB-Control Program
Open this section in a new window Health System Perspective
Open this section in a new window State X Perspective of the State Budget
Open this section in a new window Societal Perspective
Open this section in a new window The Alternative Strategies/Options That Will Be Considered
Open this section in a new window The Study Time Frame/Analytic Horizon
Open this section in a new window The Study Format
Open this section in a new window An Outcome/Output Measure
Open this section in a new window Summary: Step 1
Open this section in a new window Step 2: Evaluating Resource Use
Open this section in a new window More Background
Open this section in a new window Costs To Be Considered
Open this section in a new window Should You Include Patient Costs?
Open this section in a new window List the Direct Costs
Open this section in a new window Provide Examples of Indirect Costs
Open this section in a new window Intangible Costs
Open this section in a new window Cost Classification Systems
Open this section in a new window Sources for Quantifying Direct Costs
Open this section in a new window Getting Values of Direct Cost Resources
Open this section in a new window Summary: Step 2
Open this section in a new window Step 3: Adjusting Costs and Calculating Results
Open this section in a new window Adjusting Costs
Open this section in a new window Step 1. Calculate the Net Present Value of the Scrap Value of the X-ray Machine.
Open this section in a new window Step 2. Calculate the Annuity Factor A
Open this section in a new window Step 3. Calculate the Equivalent Annual Cost
Open this section in a new window Calculating Results
Open this section in a new window Personnel Costs: Site A
Open this section in a new window Transportation Costs: Site A
Open this section in a new window Supply Costs: Site A
Open this section in a new window Total Program Costs by Resource Category

Open this tutorial in a new window. Case Study: Economic Evaluation of a Smallpox Attack
Open this section in a new window Source
Open this section in a new window The Context
Open this section in a new window Scenario 1: Airport Attack
Open this section in a new window Scenario 2: Hoax
Open this section in a new window Methods
Open this section in a new window The Model: Data and Assumptions
Open this section in a new window Assumptions
Open this section in a new window The Decision Rule
Open this section in a new window Results
Open this section in a new window The Number of Vaccinations for Each Strategy
Open this section in a new window Outcomes
Open this section in a new window Sensitivity Analysis
Open this section in a new window Conclusions

Open this tutorial in a new window. Case Study: Risks and Benefits of Preexposure and Postexposure Smallpox Vaccination (interactive)
Open this section in a new window Study Source
Open this section in a new window Context
Open this section in a new window Methods
Open this section in a new window Definitions of Key Terms
Open this section in a new window The Model
Open this section in a new window The Three Scenarios
Open this section in a new window Assumptions
Open this section in a new window Decision Rule
Open this section in a new window Interactive Exercises
Open this section in a new window Exercise 1. General Population
Open this section in a new window Instructions
Open this section in a new window Exercise 2. Hospital Personnel
Open this section in a new window Instructions
Open this section in a new window Exercise 3. Investigation Teams
Open this section in a new window Instructions
Open this section in a new window Overall Recommendations
Open this section in a new window Results
Open this section in a new window Sensitivity Analysis
Open this section in a new window Policy Implications

Open this tutorial in a new window. Case Study: Applying Cost-Effectiveness Analysis to a Pneumococcal-Conjugate Vaccination Program
Open this section in a new window Case Study — Part I (Framing)
Open this section in a new window Pneumococcal-Conjugate Vaccine Program: Background Information
Open this section in a new window Vaccines
Open this section in a new window Vaccine Supply
Open this section in a new window The U.S. Vaccine Supply and Delivery Network
Open this section in a new window Supply and Delivery Implications
Open this section in a new window Role of Pneumococcus Vaccine
Open this section in a new window Pneumococcus Vaccination Strategy
Open this section in a new window Framing the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Open this section in a new window Getting Started
Open this section in a new window Framing Questions and Answers
Open this section in a new window Case Study — Part II (Assessing Costs and Outcomes)
Open this section in a new window Pneumococcal-Conjugate Vaccine Program: Background Information
Open this section in a new window Doing the Cost and Outcome Analysis
Open this section in a new window Cost and Outcome Questions and Answers

Open this tutorial in a new window. CBA Case Study: The Economic Impact of Pandemic Influenza in the United States
Open this section in a new window Source
Open this section in a new window Context
Open this section in a new window Methods
Open this section in a new window Definitions of Key Terms
Open this section in a new window The Model
Open this section in a new window Outcomes From the Model
Open this section in a new window Estimating the Number of Cases
Open this section in a new window Estimating Costs
Open this section in a new window Pandemic Costs
Open this section in a new window Vaccination Costs
Open this section in a new window Estimating Benefits
Open this section in a new window Results
Open this section in a new window Illnesses and Deaths
Open this section in a new window Economic Impact of an Influenza Pandemic
Open this section in a new window Net Value of Vaccination
Open this section in a new window Economic Consequences of Intervention Strategies
Open this section in a new window Sensitivity Analysis
Open this section in a new window Setting Vaccination Priorities
Open this section in a new window Conclusions
Open this section in a new window Appendix
Open this section in a new window Table 1. Estimate of age distribution of cases and percentage of population at high risk used to examine the impact of pandemic influenza in the United States
Open this section in a new window Table 2. Variables used to define distribution of disease outcomes of those with clinical cases of influenza
Open this section in a new window Table 3. Input variables used to calculate the economic impact (direct and indirect costs) of health outcomes attributed to an influenza pandemic in the United States (in 1995 US$)
Open this section in a new window Table 4. Cost of vaccination during an influenza pandemic — with specific costs assigned to side effects of vaccination

Open this section in a new window Series Glossary

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Acknowledgements
Produced by
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Kwame Owusu-Edusei, NIOSH (Content)
Kakoli Roy, OWCD (Project Supervision)
Amanda Schofield (Content)
Ara Zohrabian, OWCD (Content)
Based on earlier, paper-based Framing &
Cost Analysis self-study guides by
Phaedra Corso, NCIPC
Odile Ferroussier, NCHSTP
Amanda Schofield
Additional acknowledgements
Vilma Carande-Kulis, OCSO
Sajal Chattopadhyay, OSI
Martin Meltzer, NCID
Contacts
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