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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

Archival Content: 1999-2005

Training Doing the Work

NIDA Community-Based Outreach Model: A Manual to Reduce the Risk of HIV and Other Blood-Borne Infections in Drug Users

National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). NIDA Community-Based Outreach Model: A Manual to Reduce the Risk of HIV and Other Blood-Borne Infections in Drug Users.Link to a Non-CDC site Bethesda (MD): NIDA; 2000. DHHS Publication No. 00-4812.

What’s in this manual?

This manual is designed to help service providers, community planning groups, policymakers, and program developers and plan develop outreach programs to prevent the spread of infectious diseases associated with drug use—primarily HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B (HBV), and hepatitis C (HCV).

It describes a research-based outreach model that was tested in from the late 1980s to the late 1990s in 52 U.S. communities with more than 60,000 injection drug users, 14,000 crack users, and many of their sexual partners. The manual guides outreach workers step-by-step through the model, which consists of:

  • selecting outreach sites where drugs are purchased and used;
  • engaging drug users; and
  • educating and counseling drug users about reducing their drug- and sex-related risks for infection; the NIDA Community Outreach Model recommends HIV, HBV, and HCV testing, followed by appropriate counseling based on positive or negative results.

What research is this model based on?

This model is based on a large research study, carried out from 1987-1992 and funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA). The National AIDS Demonstration Research (NADR) Program was the first multisite research program to deliver and evaluate HIV risk reduction outreach programs to drug users who were not in treatment. Outreach staff in 29 communities worked with IDUs in the community to distribute HIV risk reduction information and offer additional counseling and HIV testing. The outreach workers provided risk reduction materials and education, and arranged for IDUs to receive free, private HIV testing and counseling. NADR results were encouraging:

  • 46% of NADR participants reduced or stopped injecting drugs;
  • 37% reduced or stopped sharing needles;
  • 50% reduced or stopped borrowing needles;
  • 60% reduced or stopped sharing other injection equipment; and
  • A substantial minority of IDUs entered substance abuse treatment, many for the first time in their lives.

A followup Cooperative Agreement for AIDS Community-Based Outreach/Intervention Research Program (CA Program) was carried out from 1990 to 1999. This program used refiined and improved elements from NADR. Results were similar to those of NADR. The basic intervention tested in CA is the core of the NIDA Community-based Outreach Model described in this manual.

These programs and other NIDA-funded research demonstrate that drug users can significantly reduce their their drug use, needle-sharing practices, unsafe sex behaviors, and, importantly, their HIV infection rates when they participate in appropriately designed prevention programs, such as outreach efforts.

More information on NADR and CA.Link to a Non-CDC site

How much does the manual cost?

It is available free of charge from the National Institute on Drug Abuse

How can I get the manual?

For more information about NIDA:

National Institute on Drug AbuseLink to a Non-CDC site
National Institutes of Health
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
6001 Executive Boulevard, Room 5213
Bethesda, MD 20892-9561

This CDC Web site is no longer being reviewed or updated and thus is no longer kept current. This site remains to assist researchers or others needing historical content.

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