This section is only one part of a larger tool created to help states
and communities develop a comprehensive document that describes their
burden of oral disease. Access other sections of the Tool in the
Table of Contents.
Amar S, Chung KM. Influence of hormonal variation on the periodontium in
women. Periodontol 2000:1994;6:7987.
American Academy of Periodontology. Position paper: Tobacco use and the
periodontal patient. J Periodontol 1999;70:141927.
American Dental Association. Distribution of Dentists in the United States
by Region and State, 1997. Chicago, IL: American Dental Association Survey
Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. National Health Expenditure (NHE)
amounts by type of expenditure and source of funds: Calendar years
19652013. Updated October 2004. [Updated version: Centers for Medicare &
Medicaid Services. National Health Expenditure (NHE) amounts by type of
expenditure and source of funds: Calendar years 19652019. Available at
Christen AG, McDonald JL, Christen JA. The impact of tobacco use and
cessation on nonmalignant and precancerous oral and dental diseases and
conditions. Indianapolis, IN: Indiana University School of Dentistry; 1991.
Dasanayake AP. Poor periodontal health of the pregnant woman as a risk
factor for low birth weight. Ann Periodontal 1998;3:20612.
Davenport ES, Williams CE, Sterne JA, Sivapathasundram V, Fearne JM,
Curtis MA. The East London study of maternal chronic periodontal disease
and preterm low birth weight infants: Study design and prevalence data.
Ann Periodontol 1998;3:21321.
De Stefani E, Deneo-Pellegrini H, Mendilaharsu M, Ronco A. Diet and risk of
cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract--I. Foods. Oral Oncol
Gaffield ML, Gilbert BJ, Malvitz DM, Romaguera R. Oral health during
pregnancy: An analysis of information collected by the pregnancy risk
assessment monitoring system. J Am Dent Assoc 2001;132(7):100916. Full text
available at: http://jada.ada.org/cgi/content/full/132/7/1009.*
Genco RJ. Periodontal disease and risk for myocardial infarction and
cardiovascular disease. Cardiovasc Rev Rep 1998;19(3):3440.
Herrero R. Chapter 7: Human papillomavirus and cancer of the upper
aerodigestive tract. J Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 2003; (31):4751.
International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). IARC Monographs on the
Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans, Volume 89, Smokeless tobacco and
some tobacco-specific N-nitrosamines. Lyon, France: World Health
Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2007.
Johnson NW. Oral Cancer. London: FDI World Press, 1999.
Komaromy M, Grumbach K, Drake M, Vranizan K, Lurie N, Keane D, Bindman AB.
The role of black and Hispanic physicians in providing health care for
underserved populations. N Engl J Med 1996;334(20):130510.
Kressin NR, De Souza MB. Oral health education and health promotion.
In: Gluck GM, Morganstein WM (eds). Jongs Community Dental Health, 5th ed.
St. Louis, MO: Mosby; 2003:277328.
Levi F. Cancer prevention: Epidemiology and perspectives. Eur J Cancer
McLaughlin JK, Gridley G, Block G, et al. Dietary factors in oral and
pharyngeal cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1988;80(15):123743.
Mealey BL. Periodontal implications: medically compromised patients. Ann Periodontol 1996;1(1):256321.
Morse DE, Pendrys DG, Katz RV, et al. Food group intake and the risk of oral
epithelial dysplasia in a United States population. Cancer Causes Control
Offenbacher S, Jared HL, OReilly PG, Wells SR, Salvi GE, Lawrence HP, et
al. Potential pathogenic mechanisms of periodontitis associated pregnancy
complications. Ann Periodontol 1998;3(1):23350.
Offenbacher S, Lieff S, Boggess KA, Murtha AP, Madianos PN, Champagne CM, et
al. Maternal periodontitis and prematurity. Part I: Obstetric outcome of
prematurity and growth restriction. Ann Periodontol 2001;6(1):16474.
Phelan JA. Viruses and neoplastic growth. Dent Clin North Am
Redford M. Beyond pregnancy gingivitis: Bringing a new focus to womens oral
health. J Dent Educ 1993;57(10):7428.
Ries LAG, Eisner MP, Kosary CL, Hankey BF, Miller BA, Clegg L, et al. (Eds).
SEER Cancer Statistics Review, 19752001, National Cancer Institute:
Bethesda, MD; National Cancer Institute; 2004. Available at
Scannapieco FA, Bush RB, Paju S. Periodontal disease as a risk factor for
adverse pregnancy outcomes. A systematic review. Ann Periodontol.
Shanks TG, Burns DM. Disease consequences of cigar smoking. In: Cigars:
Health effects and trends. Smoking and Tobacco Control Monograph 9.
Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health
Service, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute, 1998.
Silverman SJ, Jr. Oral Cancer, 4th edition. Atlanta, GA: American Cancer
Taylor GW. Bidirectional interrelationships between diabetes and periodontal
diseases: An epidemiologic perspective. Ann Periodontol 2001;6(1):99112.
Tomar SL, Asma S. Smoking-attributable periodontitis in the United States:
Findings from NHANES III. J Periodontol 2000;71:74351.
Tomar SL, Husten CG, Manley MW. Do dentists and physicians advise tobacco
users to quit? J Am Dent Assoc 1996;127(2):25965.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The Health Consequences of
Using Smokeless Tobacco: A Report of the Advisory Committee to the Surgeon
General. Bethesda, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public
Health Service; 1986. NIH Publication No. 862874.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Current Estimates from the
National Health Interview Survey, 1996. Series 10, No. 200. Atlanta, GA:
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics; 1999. DHHS
Publication No. 991528. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/NCHS/data/series/sr_10/sr10_200.pdf.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Oral Health in America:
A Report of the Surgeon General. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health
and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of
Dental and Craniofacial Research; 2000a. NIH Publication No. 004713.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Oral Health. In: Healthy
People 2010, 2nd edition. With Understanding and Improving Health and
Objectives for Improving Health. 2 vols. Washington, DC: U.S. Government
Printing Office; 2000b.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. National Call to Action to
Promote Oral Health. Rockville, MD: U.S. Department of Health and Human
Services, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, National
Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research; 2003. NIH Publication No.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The health consequences of
smoking: A report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of
Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office
on Smoking and Health; 2004a. Available at http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/smokingconsequences/.