Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) continues to improve education opportunities for Hispanic Americans as evidenced by the following report. Information on programs and activities that have a direct impact on the Hispanic/Latino community is provided in addition to information on the support provided to Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs) and Hispanic Serving Health Professions Schools (HSHPS).
CDCís Office of Minority Health (OMH) has been in the forefront of ensuring that the public health needs of Hispanic Americans continue to be addressed and coordinated CDCís support and participation in the 2002 Congressional Hispanic Caucusí National Hispanic Health Leadership Summit held in August 2002, in San Antonio, Texas. This Summit convened health care leaders and Congressional representatives and their staff to discuss critical health care issues and needs of the Hispanic/Latino communities.
CDC continues to monitor and promote the cooperative agreement with the Hispanic-Serving Health Professions Schools, Inc. (HSHPS) and the Interagency Agreement with Human Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), which supports three grassroots migrant farmworker stream forums, organized by the National Center on Farmworker Health (NCFWH).
The CDC Office of the Director (OD) Spanish website, CDC En EspaŮol, has continued to grow in both content and outreach to viewers. It continues to facilitate quality translation services for the Centers, Institute, and Offices (CIOs) and has established an intranet site for employees.
Highlights of CDCís programs and activities that serve the Latino/Hispanic communities include:
2. Detailed Description of Activities
At this time, CDC is not able to capture all the data required to complete the new federal reporting form for the White House Initiative on Educational Excellence for Hispanic Americans, Executive Order 13230, No Child Left Behind. Now that CDC has received the new form, it will be in a better position to collect these data for future reporting in the format indicated by the new form.
CDCís mission is to promote health and quality of life by preventing and controlling disease, injury, and disability. CDC seeks to accomplish its mission by working with partners throughout the nation and world to monitor health, detect and investigate health problems, conduct research to enhance prevention, develop and advocate sound public health policies, implement prevention strategies, promote healthy behaviors, foster safe and healthful environments, and provide leadership and training. Since CDC works primarily through partners, it has worked diligently this past year to support and enhance its relationship with key organizations that are recognized champions of Hispanic/Latino higher education.
Below is a summary of some of the programs and activities directed specifically at Hispanic/Latino communities.
CDC, through its Centers, Institute, and Offices (CIOs), is investing in efforts to reach out to organizations that can promote their work with the Latino community.
The CDC Spanish website CDC En EspaŮol has continued to grow in both content and outreach to viewers. CDC continues to facilitate quality translation services for the CIOs and has established an intranet site for employees.
Specifically in relationship to students, this past year, CDC, through its Human Resources Management Office, provided support for the Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities (HACU) and was able to place 30 HACU students throughout its CIOs. This is an unprecedented number at CDC. CDC is looking at ways to expand the participation of HACU students at CDC and to further refine what it can offer these students.
CDCís Office of Minority Health (OMH)
Dr. Rios estimates that the HSHPS is able to reach approximately two thirds of this population. In FY 2002, as a result of the HSHPSí researcher database, CDC was able to integrate into its external review system newly identified researchers who have worked with the Latino community. Although the preliminary numbers are small, it is CDCís intent to continue to develop this network of resources to enhance its outreach and penetration of this underserved population.
Through the CDC/HSHPS cooperative agreement, a United States/Mexico border research seminar series was initiated in December 2001. Work on resultant data bases from this activity is still being completed. In addition, four medical and public health HSHPS interns were placed at CDC through this cooperative agreement in FY 2002.
CDC/OMH, through an interagency agreement with the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), continues to support three grassroots migrant farmworker stream forums, organized by the National Center on Farmworker Health. This support has involved both funding and collaboration in panels, presentations, workshops, and research activities. CDCís support for the forums includes funding, identifying subject matter experts for panel and workshop presentations, conducting research activities, and facilitating communication, which helps researchers, workers, employers, and advocates break down barriers and develop trust and cooperation.
CDC/OMH coordinated CDCís support and participation in the 2002 Congressional Hispanic Caucusí National Hispanic Health Leadership Summit. The summit focused on health issues of all Hispanics in the United States and Puerto Rico. It encompassed the areas of data and surveillance, research, public health infrastructure, multiple sector collaboration, United States/ Mexico border health, chronic diseases, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, TB, environmental health, asthma, neural tube birth defects, and violence and injury. In addition to developing a new bilingual/bicultural table top display (bilingual information on CDC programs of particular interest to Hispanics), CDCís National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) also provided a data package: ďA Demographic and Health Snapshot of the U.S. Hispanic/Latino Populations.Ē
CDCís National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
CDC, through NIOSH, targets efforts to reduce illness and injury among Hispanic workers by translating and communicating information into Spanish through Spanish publications, an all-Spanish language website, a Spanish-language answering system for the NIOSH toll-free number, and a system for responding to e-mail requests in Spanish.
CDCís National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health
CDC provides funding to the Public Health Institute in Los Angeles, California, and the University of Oklahoma Health Services Center in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, to develop, implement, and evaluate a theory-based intervention to prevent unintended pregnancy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among 18-25 year-old women. The Los Angeles site focuses exclusively on Latina women and their primary male sex partners. Based on formative research findings, the investigators developed a theory-based intervention consisting of three small group sessions to help women and their partners recognize personal susceptibility; increase motivation to change behavior; improve communication about safer sex among couples; and acquire necessary skills to prevent unintended pregnancy, HIV, and other STDs.
CDC is doing formative research on issues related to breast and cervical cancer screening in rarely or never screened women. This includes a comprehensive literature review examining barriers to breast and cervical cancer screening among racial/ethnic minorities, not limited to Mexican women, and the conduct of focus groups with Mexican women. Twenty-four focus groups were conducted with a total of 183 Mexican women. Eight focus groups were conducted in each of three locations: Houston, Texas; Fresno, California; and San Diego, California. Women between the ages of 40-69 participated in the groups and all groups were conducted in Spanish. Analysis of the focus group data is underway.
CDC is also conducting formative research, population surveys, and intervention research in the area of increasing cervical cancer screening in Hispanic women. Focus groups were used to identify reasons why women do not get Papanicolaou (Pap) tests. A population survey was used to describe the population and correlates of screening. The information from the formative research and the population survey were used to design an educational intervention to be delivered by promotoras in the community.
CDC, through the Central America Diabetes Initiative (CAMDI), aims to reduce the burden of diabetes in the United States and contribute to international efforts to reduce the burden in other countries around the world. Aside from the impact on the countries of Central America, this project is relevant to the large and growing Hispanic-America population, of whom many have emigrated from Central America. Long-term goals of the project include an intervention phase, which is to improve access to care, education, and diabetes care in Central America (Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, and Nicaragua).
CDCís Diabetes Today National Training Center is designed to provide training, technical assistance, and follow-up in community-based planning, implementation, and evaluation around diabetes control and prevention, primarily to state health departments and their partners. Participants in this project include state level health professionals, community leaders, members of National Minority Organizations (NMO), members of volunteer organizations, and health care providers who are interested in addressing the problem of diabetes. This training is available for both English and Spanish speaking populations. The Diabetes Today National Training Center is currently in its third year of funding. During the period October 1, 1999 - September 30, 2002, a total of 565 individuals completed Diabetes Today training. The English Version Training was completed by 347 individuals, and 218 individuals have completed the Spanish Version Training. Eighteen training sessions have been conducted in English, and seven training sessions have been conducted in Spanish. These training sessions were conducted by community representatives who were trained in how to conduct community-based diabetes control/intervention programs.
CDCís National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP) is a joint initiative with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) that involves an extensive partnership network of more than 200 public and private organizations. The mission of the NDEP is to improve treatment and outcomes for people with diabetes by changing the way diabetes is treated, promote early diagnosis and, ultimately, to prevent the onset of this disease. NDEPís key activities are to build the NDEP Partnership Network at the national, state, and community level; initiate program evaluation activities to collect, analyze, and measure NDEPís impact on target audiences and outcomes related to diabetes care; and facilitate the implementation and continued development of project objectives and strategies that fit into its overall strategic plan. The target population is persons with diabetes; a special emphasis is placed on reaching racial and ethnic minorities including Hispanics. NDEP has reached 3.6 million Hispanics through public service announcements (PSAs) in media broadcasts and 24 million Hispanics via print media.
In 2002, CDC selected six national minority organizations to support National Diabetes Education Program activities that strengthen the capacity of national and regional minority organizations to reduce the disproportionate burden of diabetes among high-risk populations (e.g., black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native). One national Hispanic organization was awarded funds to support National Diabetes Education Program activities. This is the National Alliance for Hispanic Health. The National Alliance for Hispanic Health is currently in the process of implementing community-based strategies for diabetes awareness, prevention, and treatment in four target communities. In addition, this organization plans to strengthen the capacity of health care providers to conduct effective diabetes education by providing training that combines cultural and linguistic proficiency with formal diabetes education for Hispanics.
CDCís Translating Research into Action for Diabetes (TRIAD) study is a multi-center prospective cohort study. It includes baseline and 18-month follow-up data collection from health plans, provider groups, and diabetic patients. The fundamental hypothesis of the TRIAD study is that structural and organizational characteristics of health systems and health care provider groups affect the processes and quality of care that influence health and economic outcomes. More specifically, the TRIAD study hypothesizes that greater experience with managed care; less use of clinician incentives to limit referrals and care; more intense efforts to implement accepted practice guidelines; and the presence of systems to identify, risk stratify, and manage patients will be associated with better processes and outcomes of care.
CDCís United States/Mexico Border Diabetes Prevention and Control
Project (US/MX BDPCP)
CDCís Illinois Prevention Research Center has partnered with a Latino youth-serving organization, the Southwest Youth Collaborative, to conduct a community-based diabetes prevention and control program in two community areas on Chicago's southwest side. The demonstration project will focus on individuals who have been diagnosed with diabetes and individuals in their environment, specifically, their families and their health providers. These individuals influence the person with diabetes, and in turn, are influenced by the person with diabetes. In addition, the project will create a social context and program support for successful diabetes prevention and management.
CDCís National Center for Infectious Diseases
In 2002, CDC/NCID developed the Hispanic/Latino Initiative aimed at enhancing Latino public health workforce participation and at reducing infectious disease morbidity and mortality among Latinos, in particular reducing health disparities experienced by Hispanic/Latino population groups. Through NCID, CDC assisted in publishing proceedings from the First Puerto Rican Conference on Public Health organized by the University of Puerto Rico and collaborated with the Puerto Rico Health Department, the Childrenís Museum of San Juan, the Puerto Rico Department of Education, and the Rotary Club of San Juan.
CDCís Epidemiology Program Office (EPO)
CDCís National Immunization Program (NIP)
The radio ANR was sent to approximately 260 Spanish language radio stations; the television and visual/video news releases (VNRs) were sent to 125 Spanish language television stations, plus UNIVISION and Telemundo television networks. Nearly $13 million was received in donated Television media. The television PSAs and radio ANR targeted an audience of more than 34,500,000 Hispanics in nearly 9,700,000 households. The radio ANR was aired by 36 radio stations with 27,186,400 audience impressions. In addition, Latina Magazine donated full-page advertisements for the months of August, September, October, and November. More than 50,000 Spanish-language infant immunization posters and 1,900 Spanish-language infant immunization booklets were distributed to more than 150 community-based organizations and health providers in 25 states. As a result of the campaign, the toll-free Spanish-language Immunization Hotline received 4,466 calls. A random sampling of calls received indicated that 66 percent of callers became aware of the hotline though materials developed for the 2002 Spanish-language campaign.
CDC/NIP has a cooperative agreement with the National Alliance for Hispanic Health, which has implemented a program called Vacunas para la familia Immunizations for All Ages, which promotes immunization to improve childhood, adolescent, and adult immunization coverage in selected Hispanic communities for the purpose of eliminating racial/ethnic disparities. This grantee is in contractual agreement with six community-based organizations known as lead agencies that service a large Hispanic population.
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
Click below to link to the Funding Tables in Sections 3, 4 & 5.
Office of Minority Health & Health Disparities