Nominees for the 2011 Charles C. Shepard Science Awards
The Office of the Associate Director for Science is honored to announce the 2011 Charles C. Shepard Science Award Nominees. The Charles C. Shepard Science Award is the preeminent honor recognizing excellence in science at CDC/ATSDR. For more information about the origin of the award and the life of Dr. Charles C. Shepard, please see the Award History page.
The nominated articles were judged on scientific merit and the significance of their effect on the missions of CDC/ATSDR. Following is a complete citation and brief explanation of each article, listed by category and in alphabetical order by the first author’s last name.
Stephen R. Benoit, L. Clifford McDonald, Roseanne English, Jerome I. Tokars
Automated Surveillance of Clostridium difficile Infections Using BioSense
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 2011;32(1):26–33
Study shows that data automatically collected by the BioSense Program, a national surveillance system, can calculate rates of disease. Results showed feasibility of using electronic laboratory data to successfully track a disease of public health importance.
Joseph D. Bowman, Christian K. Miller, Edward F. Krieg, Ruiguang Song
Analyzing Digital Vector Waveforms of 0–3000 Hz Magnetic Fields for Health Studies
Magnetic field exposures are difficult to assess in extremely low-frequency epidemiologic studies. NIOSH developed computer programs to calculate how magnetic fields interact with biological systems, which will help to assess compliance with exposure limits and to improve occupational health studies.
James P. Boyle, Theodore J. Thompson, Edward W. Gregg, Lawrence E. Barker, David F. Williamson
Projection of the Year 2050 Burden of Diabetes in the US Adult Population: Dynamic Modeling of Incidence, Mortality, and Prediabetes Prevalence
Population Health Metrics 2010;8:29
Health care costs for diabetes will rise as the US population ages, high-risk minority groups get larger, and people with diabetes live longer. Effective interventions can reduce, but not eliminate, cost increases
W. Abdullah Brooks, Doli Goswami, Mustafizur Rahman, Kamrun Nahar, Alicia M. Fry, Amanda Balish, Nadia Iftekharuddin, Tasnim Azim, Xiyan Xu, Alexander Klimov, Joseph Bresee, Carolyn Bridges, and Stephen Luby
Influenza is a Major Contributor to Childhood Pneumonia in a Tropical Developing Country
The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 2010;29(3):216–221
Pneumonia is the leading cause of death among children worldwide, particularly in developing countries. This is the first study to document how influenza contributes to childhood pneumonia. The study will influence pneumonia prevention policies by adding the prospect of influenza vaccination as a key strategy.
Kevin P. Cain, Kimberly D. McCarthy, Charles M. Heilig, Patama Monkongdee, Theerawit Tasaneeyapan, Nong Kanara, Michael E. Kimerling, Phalkun Chheng, Sopheak Thai, Borann Sar, Praphan Phanuphak, Nipat Teeratakulpisarn, Nittaya Phanuphak, Nguyen Huy Dung, Hoang Thi Quy, Le Hung Thai, and Jay K. Varma
An Algorithm for Tuberculosis Screening and Diagnosis in People with HIV
The New England Journal of Medicine 2010; 362(8):707–716
People with HIV should be screened for TB to facilitate early diagnosis and safe initiation of antiretroviral therapy and TB prevention therapy. TB screening questions should ask about combinations of symptoms rather than only about simple chronic cough.
Matheus P. Cerroni, Jean C.S. Barrado, Aglaer A. Nobrega, Alysson B.M. Lins, Iolanda P. da Silva, Robson R. Mangueira , Rômulo H. da Cruz, Sandra M.F. Mendes, and Jeremy Sobel
Outbreak of Beriberi in an Indian Population of the Upper Amazon Region, Roraima State, Brazil, 2008
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2010;83(5):1093–1097
Classic epidemiologic methods are successfully applied to a noninfectious cluster of illnesses and deaths in Amazonian Indians. This investigation took place in the remote northern Amazon Basin and resulted in successful etiologic diagnosis of beriberi and its control through thiamine supplementation.
Patricia M. Dietz, Lucinda J. England, Carrie K. Shapiro-Mendoza, Van T. Tong, Sherry L. Farr, and William M. Callaghan
Infant Morbidity and Mortality Attributable to Prenatal Smoking in the US
American Journal of Preventive Medicine 2010;39(1):45–52
Despite the decline of smoking among pregnant women, prenatal smoking continues to cause many infant deaths. The authors estimated the percentage of infant morbidity and mortality attributed to prenatal smoking using outcomes causally associated with prenatal smoking from the Surgeon General's report.
Daniel R. Feikin, Geoffrey Jagero, Barrack Aura, Godfrey M. Bigogo, Joseph Oundo, Bernard W. Beall, Angela Karani, Susan Morpeth, M. Kariuki Njenga, and Robert F. Breiman
High Rate of Pneumococcal Bacteremia in a Prospective Cohort of Older Children and Adults in an Area of High HIV Prevalence in Rural Western Kenya
BMC Infectious Diseases 2010;10:186
This paper describes a clinical research trial conducted and population rate estimates of pneumococcal disease in a population that was not previously well-characterized.
Gayle E. Fischer, Melissa K. Schaefer, Brian J. Labus, Lawrence Sands, Patricia Rowley, Ihsan A. Azzam, Patricia Armour, Yury E. Khudyakov, Yulin Lin, Guoliang Xia, Priti R. Patel, Joseph F. Perz, and Scott D. Holmberg
Hepatitis C Virus Infections from Unsafe Injection Practices at an Endoscopy Clinic in Las Vegas, Nevada, 2007–2008
Clinical Infectious Diseases e 2010;51(3):267–273
Hepatitis C increased among patients who underwent endoscopy at a single facility in Nevada. This investigation found patient-to-patient contamination likely resulted from administering anesthesia using single-use medication vials for multiple patients. Health care providers should review their practices and those of their staff.
David S. Freedman, Y. Claire Wang, William H. Dietz, Ji-Hua Xu, Sathanur R. Srinivasan, and Gerald S. Berenson
Changes and Variability in High Levels of Low-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol among Children
Changes and variability in high levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol among children have not been investigated. This study concluded that high levels of LDL cholesterol may decrease without intervention. Multiple determinations may be needed to characterize a child’s true LDL cholesterol status.
Suzanne M. Gilboa, Jason L. Salemi, Wendy N. Nembhard, David E. Fixler, and Adolfo Correa
Mortality Resulting from Congenital Heart Disease among Children and Adults in the United States, 1999 to 2006
Congenital heart disease (CHD) accounts for most deaths related to birth defects. The authors analyzed CHD death trends using multiple population-based data sources. Racial-ethnic disparities observed more than a decade ago remain evident. Although infancy is the most vulnerable period, CHD mortality occurs into adulthood.
Cynthia F. Hinton, Jelili A. Ojodu, Paul M. Fernhoff, Sonja A. Rasmussen, Kelley S. Scanlon, and W. Harry Hannon
Maternal and Neonatal Vitamin B12 Deficiency Detected through Expanded Newborn Screening–United States, 2003–2007
The Journal of Pediatrics 2010;157(1):162–163
Left untreated, vitamin B12 deficiency leads to irreversible neurologic damage. The deficiency can now be identified through newborn screening (NBS) and treated early. This assessment of current practices shows that few states have data on newborn vitamin B12 deficiency. Data are needed to inform and strengthen NBS programs.
Stacy M. Holzbauer, Aaron S. DeVries, James J. Sejvar, Christine H. Lees, Jennifer Adjemian, Jennifer H. McQuiston, Carlota Medus, Catherine A. Lexau, Julie R. Harris, Sergio E. Recuenco, Ermias D. Belay, James F. Howell, Bryan F. Buss, Mady Hornig, John D. Gibbins, Scott E. Brueck, Kirk E. Smith, Richard N. Danila, W. Ian Lipkin, Daniel H. Lachance, P. James. B. Dyck, and Ruth Lynfield
Epidemiologic Investigation of Immune-mediated Polyradiculoneuropathy among Abattoir Workers Exposed to Porcine Brain
PLoS One 2010;5(3):e9782
An investigation was initiated to determine risk factors for an illness associated with using compressed air to remove porcine brains. The potential for respiratory or mucosal exposure to cause an immune-mediated illness in an occupational setting was evident. Physicians need to be aware of what patients have been exposed to in their work place.
Parveen Nedra Joseph, John M. Violanti, Richard Donahue, Michael E. Andrew, Maurizio Trevisan, Cecil M. Burchfiel, and Joan Dorn
Endothelial Function, a Biomarker of Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease, in Urban Police Officers
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2010;52(10):1004–1008
Researchers hypothesized that police officers who routinely deal with occupational stress have less endothelial function than civilians of similar age from the same region. Study examined the risk factors of urban police officers for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, cholesterol, smoking prevalence, and alcohol consumption.
Jennifer W. Kaminski, Richard W. Puddy, Diane M. Hall, Sandra Y. Cashman, Alexander E. Crosby, and LaVonne A.G. Ortega
The Relative Influence of Different Domains of Social Connectedness on Self-directed Violence in Adolescence
Journal of Youth and Adolescence 2010;39(5):460–473
This study analyzes the comparative strengths of adolescents’ social connectedness to family, peers, school, and adults at school and examines the influence of each on self-directed violence. Results will inform suicide prevention and will help focus limited resources (i.e., enhancement of school programs that strengthen positive family ties).
Theodore C. Larson, Cristopher A. Meyer, Vikas Kapil, Jud W. Gurney, Robert D. Tarver, Charles B. Black, and James E. Lockey
Workers with Libby Amphibole Exposure: Retrospective Identification and Progression of Radiographic Changes
Researchers studying serial chest radiographs of vermiculite workers found that exposure to Libby amphibole may result in asbestos-related pleural disease earlier than is typically reported with exposure to asbestos. The workers’ pre-employment radiographs indicate nonoccupational exposure to Libby amphibole may cause pleural abnormalities in children.
Ruowei Li, Sara B. Fein, and Laurence M. Grummer-Strawn
Do Infants Fed from Bottles Lack Self-regulation of Milk Intake Compared with Directly Breastfed Infants?
This paper demonstrates that feeding milk in a bottle versus direct breastfeeding affects an infant’s self-regulation of milk intake months later.
Anne C. Looker, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Anna N.A. Tosteson, Helena Johansson, John A. Kanis, and L. Joseph Melton III
Hip Fracture Risk in Older US Adults by Treatment Eligibility Status Based on New National Osteoporosis Foundation Guidance
Osteoporosis International 2011;22(2):541–549
This paper examines the risk of hip fracture in older adults by their eligibility for pharmacologic treatment, as described in new national guidelines. These guidelines appear to reliably predict risk. Older adults eligible for treatment were about five times more likely to fracture a hip than those who were not eligible.
Rebecca B. Naumann, Ann M. Dellinger, Eduard Zaloshnja, Bruce A. Lawrence, and Ted R. Miller
Incidence and Total Lifetime Costs of Motor Vehicle-related Fatal and Nonfatal Injury by Road User Type, United States, 2005
Traffic Injury Prevention 2010;11(4):353–360
Each year, motor vehicle injuries and deaths on US roads cost tens of thousands of lives and billions of dollars. Effective interventions exist that can and should be used. This portrayal of the economic severity may unite policy makers, funding agencies, and stakeholders.
Peter G. Pappas, Barbara D. Alexander, David R. Andes, Susan Hadley, Carol A. Kauffman, Alison Freifeld, Elias J. Anaissie, Lisa M. Brumble, Loreen Herwaldt, James Ito, Dimitrios P. Kontoyiannis, G. Marshall Lyon, Kieren A. Marr, Vicki A. Morrison, Benjamin J. Park, Thomas F. Patterson, Trish M. Perl, Robert A. Oster, Mindy G. Schuster, Randall Walker, Thomas J. Walsh, Kathleen A. Wannemuehler, and Tom M. Chiller
Invasive Fungal Infections among Organ Transplant Recipients: Results of the Transplant-Associated Infection Surveillance Network (TRANSNET)
Clinical Infectious Diseases 2010;50(8):1101–1111
Invasive fungal infections can cause morbidity and mortality among recipients of organ transplants. This paper describes the incidence and epidemiology of such infections in recipients of solid organ transplants in the United States. Knowledge of late-occurring infections will help shape prevention, diagnostic, and treatment strategies.
Jennita Reefhuis, Margaret A. Honein, Laura A. Schieve, and Sonja A. Rasmussen; for the National Birth Defects Prevention Study
Use of Clomiphene Citrate and Birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2005
Human Reproduction 2011;26(2):451–457
This large population-based study of birth defects allows individual defects to be assessed. Associations between the infertility medication clomiphene and nine defects are examined. Ovulation stimulation medications account for about 5% of US live births, and clomiphene is a first-line treatment.
Patricia Ruiz, Moiz Mumtaz, John Osterloh, Jeffrey Fisher, and Bruce A. Fowler
Interpreting NHANES Biomonitoring Data, Cadmium
Toxicology Letters 2010;198(1):44–48
The general population is usually exposed to cadmium, a known carcinogen, through diet. Researchers developed a computational model to predict urinary excretion of cadmium. Results show an increase in exposure and absorption of cadmium in children 6–11 years, followed by a monotonic rise into the seventh decade of life, which agrees with data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
David E. Sugerman, Albert E. Barskey, Maryann G. Delea, Ismael R. Ortega-Sanchez, Daoling Bi, Kimberly J. Ralston, Paul A. Rota, Karen Waters-Montijo, and Charles W. LeBaron
Measles Outbreak in a Highly Vaccinated Population, San Diego, 2008: Role of the Intentionally Undervaccinated
One unvaccinated 7-year-old boy unknowingly infected with measles exposed more than 800 people, resulting in 11 new cases and the hospitalization of an infant too young to vaccinate. Rising rates of intentional undervaccination can undermine measles elimination. Outbreaks occur at major cost to public health agencies, medical systems, and families.
Florence K. Tangka, Justin G. Trogdon, Lisa C. Richardson, David Howard, Susan A. Sabatino, and Eric A. Finkelstein
Cancer Treatment Cost in the United States: Has the Burden Shifted over Time?
Authors use an econometric approach to estimate cancer-attributable medical cost. Three trends emerge in medical cancer cost: the cost has nearly doubled, the cost has shifted from the inpatient setting, and the share of cost paid by private insurance and Medicaid has increased.
Eyasu H. Teshale, Scott P. Grytdal, Christopher Howard, Vaughn Barry, Saleem Kamili, Jan Drobeniuc, Vincent R. Hill, Samuel Okware, Dale J. Hu, and Scott D. Holmberg
Evidence of Person-to-Person Transmission of Hepatitis E Virus during a Large Outbreak in Northern Uganda
Clinical Infectious Diseases2010;50(7):1006–1010
This paper describes an investigation of a large outbreak of hepatitis E in northern Uganda. Lacking a common source of infection, traditional prevention efforts were used. Still, this outbreak lasted a long time and secondary attacks in households were substantial. Poor hygienic practices in households suggest person-to-person transmission.
Nicholas D. Walter, Thomas H. Taylor, Jr., David K. Shay, William W. Thompson, Lynnette Brammer, Scott F. Dowell, and Matthew R. Moore; for the Active Bacterial Core Surveillance Team
Influenza Circulation and the Burden of Invasive Pneumococcal Pneumonia during a Non-pandemic Period in the United States
Clinical Infectious Diseases2010;50(2):175–183
Viral infections such as influenza are well-known predisposing factors for serious pneumococcal infections. The authors used creative modeling methods to determine how much of pneumococcal disease is linked to influenza. Surprisingly, very little of the annual pneumococcal disease burden is attributable to influenza infection.
Li Y. Wang, Maxine Denniston, Sarah Lee, Deborah Galuska, and Richard Lowry
Long-term Health and Economic Impact of Preventing and Reducing Overweight and Obesity in Adolescence
Journal of Adolescent Health 2010;46(5):467–473
Obesity prevention will not only improve the health of adolescents, it also will reduce medical costs and substantially increase their quality-adjusted life years. When quantifying the full effect of obesity prevention, the long-term health and economic benefits must be included.
Yecai Liu, Michelle S. Weinberg, Luis S. Ortega, John A. Painter, and Susan A. Maloney
Overseas Screening for Tuberculosis in U.S.-Bound Immigrants and Refugees
New England Journal of Medicine 2009;360:2406–2415
Elizabeth Blanton, Sam Ombeki, Gordon Otieno Oluoch, Alex Mwaki, Kathleen Wannemuehler, and Rob Quick
Evaluation of the Role of School Children in the Promotion of Point-of-Use Water Treatment and Handwashing in Schools and Households—Nyanza Province, Western Kenya, 2007
The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2010;82(4):664–671
In developing countries with inadequate access to safe water and sanitation infrastructure, millions of deaths each year are caused by diarrheal diseases. This article describes the sustained benefits of a primary school-based water treatment and hygiene intervention in Kenya.
Kevin P. Cain, Kimberly D. McCarthy, Charles M. Heilig, Patama Monkongdee, Theerawit Tasaneeyapan, Nong Kanara, Michael E. Kimerling, Phalkun Chheng, Sopheak Thai, Borann Sar, Praphan Phanuphak, Nipat Teeratakulpisarn, Nittaya Phanuphak, Nguyen Huy Dung, Hoang Thi Quy, Le Hung Thai, and Jay K. Varma
An Algorithm for Tuberculosis Screening and Diagnosis in People with HIV
The New England Journal of Medicine 2010;362(8):707–716
Tuberculosis (TB) screening is recommended for people with HIV infection. This study describes the development of an evidence-based algorithm that will result in the optimal means of screening people with HIV for TB infection.
Charles S. Chasela, Michael G. Hudgens, Denise J. Jamieson, Dumbani Kayira, Mina C. Hosseinipour, Athena P. Kourtis, Francis Martinson, Gerald Tegha, Rodney J. Knight, Yusuf I. Ahmed, Deborah D. Kamwendo, Irving F. Hoffman, Sascha R. Ellington, Zebrone Kacheche, Alice Soko, Jeffrey B. Wiener, Susan A. Fiscus, Peter Kazembe, Innocent A. Mofolo, Maggie Chigwenembe, Dorothy S. Sichali, and Charles M. van der Horst; for the Breastfeeding, Antiretroviral, and Nutrition study group
Maternal or Infant Antiretroviral Drugs to Reduce Hiv-1 Transmission
The New England Journal of Medicine 2010;362(24):2271–2281
This paper reports the results of a randomized controlled trial that evaluates the benefit and safety of antiretroviral prophylaxis given to infants or their mothers to prevent HIV transmission during breastfeeding.
Aaron T. Curns, Claudia A. Steiner, Marguerite Barrett, Katherine Hunter, Emily Wilson, and Umesh D. Parashar
Reduction in Acute Gastroenteritis Hospitalizations among US Children after Introduction of Rotavirus Vaccine: Analysis of Hospital Discharge Data from 18 US States
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2010;201(11):1617–1624
This study was among the first and largest to document dramatic reductions in acute gastroenteritis hospitalizations after introduction of the rotavirus vaccine. Timely and robust hospitalization data from 18 states were used, accounting for 49% of US children age 5 years or younger.
J. Gerardo García-Lerma, Mian-er Cong, James Mitchell, Ae S. Youngpairoj,
Qi Zheng, Silvina Masciotra, Amy Martin, Zsuzsanna Kuklenyik, Angela Holder,
Jonathan Lipscomb, Chou-Pong Pau, John R. Barr, Debra L. Hanson, Ron Otten,
Lynn Paxton, Thomas M. Folks, and Walid Heneine
Intermittent Prophylaxis with Oral Truvada Protects Macaques from Rectal SHIV Infection
Science Translational Medicine 2010;2(14):1–8
A promising strategy to avoid transmission of HIV is prophylactic treatment with antiretroviral (ARV) drugs before exposure to HIV. This paper describes a primate study of simian-human immunodeficiency virus to determine the efficacy of intermittent prophylactic treatment with long-acting ARVs.
James D. Green, John R. Yannaccone, Richard S. Current, Larry A. Sicher, Paul H. Moore, and Gary R. Whitman
Assessing the Performance of Various Restraints on Ambulance Patient Compartment Workers during Crash Events
International Journal of Crashworthiness 2010;15(5):517–541
Safety restraints in a moving ambulance can impede the mobility of emergency medical service workers who provide patient care. NIOSH examined restraint systems that offer protection while allowing more mobility. The industry trend for larger vehicles carrying more equipment increases the need for safe mobility.
Thomas Land, Donna Warner, Mark Paskowsky, Ayesha Cammaerts, LeAnn Wetherell, Rachel Kaufmann, Lei Zhang, Ann Malarcher, Terry Pechacek, and Lois Keithly
Medicaid Coverage for Tobacco Dependence Treatments in Massachusetts and Associated Decreases in Smoking Prevalence
PLoS One 2010;5(3):e9770
This paper shows how a smoking cessation benefit can significantly reduce smoking among Medicaid beneficiaries. Findings contributed to national Health Reform provisions for Medicaid and Medicare, the 2011 federal benefits requirement for free cessation benefits, and multiple deliberations about increasing state Medicaid benefits.
Bobby Milstein, Jack Homer, and Gary Hirsch
Analyzing National Health Reform Strategies with a Dynamic Simulation Model
American Journal of Public Health 2010;100(5):811–819
This paper describes the use of a dynamic simulation model of the US health system to answer urgent policy questions about the expected effects of potential health care reform interventions. Cost, morbidity, mortality, and health equity can be examined in the US population over time.
Sohyun Park, William M. Sappenfield, Youjie Huang, Bettylou Sherry, and Diana M. Bensyl
The Impact of the Availability of School Vending Machines on Eating Behavior during Lunch: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey
Journal of the American Dietetic Association 2010;110(10):1532–1536
This cross-sectional study examined the prevalence of students who buy snacks or beverages from vending machines instead of buying school lunches and the predictors of this behavior. Schools should reduce the availability of less-healthy choices in vending machines and reduce access to beverage vending machines.
Vesta Richardson, Joselito Hernandez-Pichardo, Manjari Quintanar-Solares, Marcelino Esparza-Aguilar, Brian Johnson, Cesar Misael Gomez-Altamirano, Umesh Parashar, and Manish Patel
Effect of Rotavirus Vaccination on Death from Childhood Diarrhea in Mexico
The New England Journal of Medicine 2010;362(4):299–305
New rotavirus vaccines were licensed in 2006. This study is the first to document if these vaccines reduce childhood deaths from diarrhea, an outcome that could not be assessed in trials before licensure. The significant decline in diarrhea-related deaths will likely encourage adoption of the vaccines worldwide.
Melissa K. Schaefer, Michael Jhung, Marilyn Dahl, Sarah Schillie, Crystal Simpson, Eloisa Llata, Ruth Link-Gelles, Ronda Sinkowitz-Cochran, Priti Patel, Elizabeth Bolyard, Lynne Sehulster, Arjun Srinivasan, and Joseph F. Perz
Infection Control Assessment of Ambulatory Surgical Centers
After an outbreak investigation, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services used an infection control audit tool developed by CDC to conduct a pilot inspection of ambulatory surgical centers. Widespread infection control deficiencies were found. The US Government Accountability Office highlighted these findings, resulting in support for better inspections of facilities nationwide.
Nadine Shehab, Melissa K. Schaefer, Scott R. Kegler, and Daniel S. Budnitz
Adverse Events from Cough and Cold Medications after a Market Withdrawal of Products Labeled for Infants
After a voluntary market withdrawal of cough and cold medications, data from a nationally-representative surveillance system were used to assess harm to children. This study evaluated the regulatory strategy for preventing medication-related harm and examined the affect of this broad-reaching public health intervention.
Rosalyn J. Singleton, Sarah Hess, Lisa R. Bulkow, Louisa Castrodale, Ginger Provo, and Brian J. McMahon
Impact of a Statewide Childhood Vaccine Program in Controlling Hepatitis A Virus Infections in Alaska
Alaska Natives have had much higher rates of hepatitis A virus (HAV) than other racial and ethnic groups. The authors evaluated the affect of universal childhood vaccination on HAV epidemiology in Alaska and found that routine childhood vaccination has nearly eliminated HAV infection.
Gillian K. SteelFisher, Robert J. Blendon, Mark M. Bekheit, and Keri Lubell
The Public’s Response to the 2009 H1N1 Influenza Pandemic
The New England Journal of Medicine 2010;362(22):e65
The public plays a vital role in containing or spreading illness and in seeking related medical care. This comprehensive review of national polls examined public response to the 2009 H1N1 pandemic and relevant public health messages. Findings can inform response planning and vaccine strategy and message framing during outbreaks.
Jeffrey S.A. Stringer, Michelle S. McConnell, James Kiarie, Omotayo Bolu, Thanomsak
Anekthananon, Tavatchai Jariyasethpong, Dara Potter, Winnie Mutsotso, Craig B. Borkowf, Dorothy Mbori-Ngacha, Peter Muiruri, John Odero Ong’ech, Isaac Zulu, Lungowe Njobvu, Bongkoch Jetsawang, Sonal Pathak, Marc Bulterys, Nathan Shaffer, and Paul J. Weidle
Effectiveness of Non-nucleoside Reverse-Transcriptase Inhibitor-based Antiretroviral Therapy in Women Previously Exposed to a Single Intrapartum Dose of Nevirapine: A Multi-country, Prospective Cohort Study
PLoS Medicine 2010; 7(2):e1000233
Women in Zambia, Kenya, and Thailand were studied to learn the effectiveness of preventive mother-to-child HIV treatment after exposure to Nevirapine (NVP). Women exposed to NVP in the prior 12 months should not be prescribed a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor as first-line therapy.
Rachel Nonkin Avchen, Lisa D. Wiggins, Owen Devine, Kim Van Naarden Braun, Catherine Rice, Nancy C. Hobson, Diana Schendel, and Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp
Evaluation of a Records-review Surveillance System Used to Determine the Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders
Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 2010;41(2)227–236
This is the first validity assessment of a US population-based autism spectrum disorders surveillance system. Results from this study demonstrate acceptable rates of specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value; sensitivity, however, was lower than anticipated.
Betsy L. Cadwell, Theodore J. Thompson, James P. Boyle, and Lawrence E. Barker
Bayesian Small Area Estimates of Diabetes Prevalence by US County, 2005
Journal of Data Science 2010;8:173–188
Public health is often conducted at a county level. However, most analyses are done at a state (or higher) level. This paper provides the first county-level estimates of diabetes prevalence and identifies diabetes hot spots in all 50 states. The methods developed for this paper have been applied to other conditions.
Maria da Gloria Carvalho, Fabiana C. Pimenta, Delois Jackson, Alexis Roundtree, Yusra Ahmad, Eugene V. Millar, Katherine L. O’Brien, Cynthia G. Whitney, Adam L. Cohen, and Bernard W. Beall
Revisiting Pneumococcal Carriage by Use of Broth Enrichment and PCR Techniques for Enhanced Detection of Carriage and Serotypes
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2010;48(5)1611–1618
An accurate assessment of pneumococcal carriage, including the serotypes distribution, is critical for understanding the impact of new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. This study evaluated new methods for assessing carriage. The use of an enriched broth and new PCR-based methods significantly enhance results over traditional methods.
Arnold R. Castro, Javan Esfandiari, Shailendra Kumar, Matthew Ashton, Susan E. Kikkert, Mahin M. Park, and Ronald C. Ballard
Novel Point-of-Care Test for Simultaneous Detection of Nontreponemal and Treponemal Antibodies in Patients with Syphilis
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2010;48(12)4615–4619
This paper describes a dual test for nontreponemal and treponemal syphilis antibodies that could allow more timely syphilis treatment by completing diagnostic tests during the initial visit.
Robert D. Gilmore, Jr., Rebekah R. Howison, Gabrielle Dietrich, Toni G. Patton, Dawn R. Clifton, and James A. Carroll
The bba64 Gene of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme Disease Agent, is Critical for Mammalian Infection via Tick Bite Transmission
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 2010;107(16):7515–7520
Borrelia spirochete is the pathogen responsible for Lyme disease. In a series of experiments, the authors show that the product of a single gene, bba64, regulates the final movement of Borrelia spirochete from ticks to human. This discovery of pathogen transmittal from ticks to humans provides a fresh approach for vaccine development.
S. Sean Hu, Michael W. Link, and Ali H. Mokdad
Reaching Linguistically Isolated People: Findings from a Telephone Survey Using Real-time Interpreters
Field Methods 2010;22(1):39–56
People who do not speak English or Spanish are often underrepresented or not represented in public health statistics because the surveys are in English or Spanish. This study evaluates the effectiveness of using real-time interpreters to increase the number of completed interviews among respondents who cannot speak either language.
Suzanne R. Kalb, Consuelo Garcia-Rodriguez, Jianlong Lou, Jakub Baudys, Theresa J. Smith, James D. Marks, Leonard A. Smith, James L. Pirkle, and John R. Barr
Extraction of BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F with a Single, High Affinity Monoclonal Antibody for Detection of Botulinum Neurotoxin by Endopep-MS
PLoS One 2010;5(8):e12237
Botulinum neurotoxins are deadly. Of the seven serotypes, four cause botulism in humans. Treatment must include serotype-specific antibodies. The authors discovered a single antibody that binds to all four botulism serotypes. Combining this antibody with the selective enzymatic activity of the four serotypes allows for detection and differentiation in a single sample.
Kristine Krajnak, G. Roger Miller, Stacey Waugh, Claud Johnson, Shengqiao Li, and Michael L. Kashon
Characterization of Frequency-dependent Responses of the Vascular System to Repetitive Vibration
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 2010;52(6):584–594
Workers who regularly use tools that expose them to vibration frequencies are at risk of developing hand-arm vibration syndrome. This assessment shows that after repeated bouts of vibration, vascular responses indicating dysfunction become more pronounced as the frequency of exposure increases.
William G. Lindsley, Francoise M. Blachere, Kristina A. Davis, Terri A. Pearce, Melanie A. Fisher, Rashida Khakoo, Stephen M. Davis, Mark E. Rogers, Robert E. Thewlis, Jose A. Posada, John B. Redrow, Ismail B. Celik, Bean T. Chen, and Donald H. Beezhold
Distribution of Airborne Influenza Virus and Respiratory Syncytial Virus in an Urgent Care Medical Clinic
Clinical Infectious Diseases 2010;50(5):693–698
This study supports the possibility that influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) can be transmitted by inhaling airborne particles that contain the viruses.
Naomi W. Lucchi, Allison Demas, Jothikumar Narayanan, Deborah Sumari, Abdunoor Kabanywanyi, S. Patrick Kachur, John W. Barnwell, and Venkatachalam Udhayakumar
Real-Time Fluorescence Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for the Diagnosis of Malaria
PLoS One 2010;5(10):e13733
The authors describe the development of RealAmp, a method for diagnosing malaria at the point of care. This method uses a simple and portable platform instead of conventional diagnostic methods that require a laboratory. RealAmp has great potential for field use.
Robert R. Mercer, Ann F. Hubbs, James F. Scabilloni, Liying Wang, Lori A. Battelli, Diane Schwegler-Berry, Vincent Castranova, and Dale W. Porter
Distribution and Persistence of Pleural Penetrations by Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes
Particle and Fibre Toxicology 2010;7:28
This study shows that multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), which have many commercial applications, can migrate to and penetrate the lung. The chronic toxicity of MWCNT in the lung requires investigation.
Victoria M. Pratt, Barbara Zehnbauer, Jean Amos Wilson, Ruth Baak, Nikolina Babic, Maria Bettinotti, Arlene Buller, Ken Butz, Matthew Campbell, Chris Civalier, Abdalla El-Badry, Daniel H. Farkas, Elaine Lyon, Saptarshi Mandal, Jason McKinney, Kasinathan Muralidharan, LeAnne Noll, Tara Sander, Junaid Shabbeer, Chingying Smith, Milhan Telatar, Lorraine Toji, Anand Vairavan, Carlos Vance, Karen E. Weck, Alan H.B. Wu, Kiang-Teck J. Yeo, Markus Zeller, and Lisa Kalman
Characterization of 107 Genomic DNA Reference Materials for CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, VKORC1, and UGT1A1
Journal of Molecular Diagnostics 2010;12(6):835–846
This paper describes the characterization of 107 genomic DNA reference materials for pharmacogenetic testing. These publicly available materials may be used for test development, test validation, quality control, proficiency testing, or biomedical research.
Nathaniel Schenker, Trivellore E. Raghunathan, and Irina Bondarenko
Improving on Analyses of Self-reported Data in a Large-scale Health Survey by Using Information from an Examination-based Survey
Statistics in Medicine 2010;29(5):533–545
This paper describes the method for combining information from two surveys to help correct for measurement error due to self reporting, ultimately improving the analyses of self-reported data and reflecting the true prevalence of health conditions.
Wun-Ju Shieh, Dianna M. Blau, Amy M. Denison, Marlene DeLeon-Carnes, Patricia Adem, Julu Bhatnagar, John Sumner, Lindy Liu, Mitesh Patel, Brigid Batten, Patricia Greer, Tara Jones, Chalanda Smith, Jeanine Bartlett, Jeltley Montague, Elizabeth White, Dominique Rollin, Rongbao Gao, Cynthia Seales, Heather Jost, Maureen Metcalfe, Cynthia S. Goldsmith, Charles Humphrey, Ann Schmitz, Clifton Drew, Christopher Paddock, Timothy M. Uyeki, and Sherif R. Zaki
2009 Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1): Pathology and Pathogenesis of 100 Fatal Cases in the United States
The American Journal of Pathology 2010;177(1):166–175
This paper describes how the pathogenesis of fatal cases of 2009 pandemic H1N1, with diffuse alveolar damage, differs from that of fatal seasonal flu cases.
Punya Shrivastava-Ranjan, Pierre E. Rollin, and Christina F. Spiropoulou
Andes Virus Disrupts the Endothelial Cell Barrier by Induction of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Downregulation of VE-Cadherin
Journal of Virology 2010;84(21):11227–11234
This paper describes a novel way to treat Hantavirus-associated disease. The authors examine virus replication per se as a contributor to leakage in the cell lining. This study identifies potential targets for treating the disease using immunotherapy.
Jennifer L.S. Sporty, Sharon W. Lemire, Edward M. Jakubowski, Julie A. Renner, Ronald A. Evans, Robert F. Williams, Jurgen G. Schmidt, Marcel J. van der Schans, Daan Noort, and Rudolph C. Johnson
Immunomagnetic Separation and Quantification of Butyrylcholinesterase Nerve Agent Adducts in Human Serum
Analytical Chemistry 2010;82(15):6593–6600
Nerve agents, including sarin and VX, are among the most toxic chemicals available to terrorists. The authors discuss a novel biomarker of individual cholinesterase levels and a validated method for assessing exposure to a chemical agent that gives same-day results.
Krishnan Sriram, Gary X. Lin, Amy M. Jefferson, Jenny R. Roberts, Oliver Wirth, Yusuke Hayashi, Kristine M. Krajnak, Joleen M. Soukup, Andrew J. Ghio, Steven H. Reynolds, Vincent Castranova, Albert E. Munson, and James M. Antonini
Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Loss of Parkinson’s Disease-linked Proteins Contribute to Neurotoxicity of Manganese-containing Welding Fumes
The FASEB Journal 2010;24(12):4989–5002
This study shows that repeated exposure to welding fumes that contain manganese contribute to neurotoxicity, causing mitochondrial dysfunction and altering the expression of Parkinson’s Disease-linked proteins in dopaminergic areas of the brain.
Yulanda M. Williamson, Hercules Moura, David Schieltz, Jon Rees, Adrian R. Woolfitt, James L. Pirkle, Jacquelyn S. Sampson, Maria L. Tondella, Edwin Ades, George Carlone, and John R. Barr
Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Multiple Pertussis Toxins and Toxoids
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology 2010;1–9
Pertussis (whooping cough) is a highly contagious bacterial infection that has increased recently among adolescents and adults. This research describes mass spectrometric analysis of pertussis toxin, a major component of acellular pertussis vaccines, and lays the foundation for proteomic-based studies to improve vaccine development.
Chunfu Yang, Amanda McNulty, Karidia Diallo, Jing Zhang, Boghuma Titanji, Sidibe Kassim, Nellie Wadonda-Kabondo, John Aberle-Grasse, Tabitha Kibuka, Peter M. Ndumbe, Shanmugam Vedapuri, Zhiyong Zhou, Benson Chilima, and John N. Nkengasong
Development and Application of a Broadly Sensitive Dried-Blood-Spot-Based Genotyping Assay for Global Surveillance of HIV-1 Drug Resistance
Journal of Clinical Microbiology 2010;48(9):3158–3164
This paper describes a new, broadly sensitive method for genotyping dry blood spots for global surveillance of HIV-1 drug resistance.
Hua Yang, Paul J. Carney, and James Stevens
Structure and Receptor Binding Properties of a Pandemic H1N1 Virus Hemagglutinin
The paper describes the structure of the influenza coat protein, hemagglutinin, from a pandemic H1N1 virus. The structure can be used to visually understand how mutations detected by ongoing surveillance affect the virus’s ability to trigger an immune response as the virus evolves.
Quanhe Yang, Tiebin Liu, Rodolfo Valdez, Ramal Moonesinghe, and Muin J. Khoury
Improvements in Ability to Detect Undiagnosed Diabetes by Using Information on Family History among Adults in the United States
American Journal of Epidemiology 2010;171(10):1079–1089
Conventional and recently developed statistical methods were used to evaluate improvements made from adding family history to traditional risk prediction models. This addition could identify 620,000 more people in the United States with undiagnosed diabetes.
- Henry Falk
- Robert Hahn
- Kathleen Kreiss
- Jennifer Madans