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Vaccine Safety > Issues of Interest > Thimerosal
References for
Frequently Asked Questions

  1. Ball L, Ball R, Pratt RD. An assessment of thimerosal in childhood vaccines. Pediatrics. 2001; 107:1147-1154.
  2. Forstrom L, Hannulksela M, Kousa M, Lehmuskallio E.  Merthiolate hypersensitivity and vaccination.  Contact Dermatitis. 1980; 6:241-245. 
  3. Jacobs RL, Lowe RS, Lanier BQ. Adverse reactions to tetanus toxoid.  JAMA. 1982; 247:40-41.
  4. Joint statement concerning removal of thimerosal from vaccines. The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP), and United States Public Health Service (USPHS). Approved June 22, 2000.
  5. Magos L. (2000).  Review on the toxicity of ethylmercury, including its presence as a preservative in biological and pharmaceutical products.  J. Appl. Toxicol. 2001; 21:1-5. 
  6. Mahaffey KR.  Methylmercury: A new look at the risks.  Public Health Reports. 1999; 114:397-415. 
  7. Pichichero ME, Cernichiari E, Lopreiato J, and Treanor J. Mercury concentrations and metabolism in infants receiving vaccines containing thimerosal: a descriptive study. Lancet 360:1737-1741 (2002).  
  8. Toxicological Profile for Mercury (Update). Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Public Health Service, US Department of Health and Human Services. Atlanta, GA, 1999.

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This page last reviewed and modified on May 11, 2004


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