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Questions and Answers
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  • If meningococcal revaccination is indicated, how often should it be given?

    The following response is based on the ACIP recommendations and consultation with the international travel experts in the Division of Quarantine. A single revaccination may be indicated for persons at high risk for infection (e.g., persons remaining in areas in which disease is epidemic), particularly for children who were first vaccinated when they were <4 years of age; such children should be considered for revaccination after 2-3 years if they remain at high risk. Although the need for revaccination of older children and adults has not been determined, antibody levels decline rapidly over 2-3 years, and if indications still exist for immunization, a single revaccination may be considered within 3-5 years.

    It appears that most clinicians revaccinate after 3 years if there will be ongoing or new exposure. (6/26/03)

  • When did cholera and typhoid vaccines become unavailable in the United States?

    Cholera vaccine has been off the market since 2000. Typhoid vaccine is still available. The older whole cell parenteral vaccine has been removed from the market, but there are still two typhoid vaccines available: the kinder, gentler parenteral Typhim Vi inactivated vaccine and the live bacterial oral Ty21a typhoid capsules. (2/13/03)

  • Why is Lyme vaccine no longer available?

    This was a business decision by the manufacturer. There did not seem to be enough demand for the vaccine. (2/13/03)

  • What is the correct route of administration for the rabies vaccine? Can it be given intradermally (ID) or must it be given intramuscularly (IM)?

    All U.S. licensed rabies vaccines should be administered by the intramuscular (IM) route ONLY. The intradermal (ID) formulation is no longer available in the U.S. (2/13/03)

  • Is there a rabies vaccine information statement? If not, could one be made since we use this vaccine?

    A VIS for rabies was published in November of 2003. It can be found along with the other VISs on the NIP website at (4/16/04)

  • Is there a cholera vaccine available for U.S. travelers and who should receive it?

    Manufacture of the only licensed cholera vaccine in the U.S. has been discontinued. The risk of cholera to U.S. travelers is so low that vaccination is of questionable benefit. The vaccine offered only brief and incomplete immunity, and thus has not been recommended for travelers. You can find information regarding cholera and international travel at (8/21/03)


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This page last modified on April 22, 2004


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