meningococcal revaccination is indicated, how often should it
following response is based on the ACIP recommendations and
consultation with the international travel experts in the Division
of Quarantine. A single revaccination may be indicated for persons
at high risk for infection (e.g., persons remaining in areas
in which disease is epidemic), particularly for children who
were first vaccinated when they were <4 years of age; such
children should be considered for revaccination after 2-3 years
if they remain at high risk. Although the need for revaccination
of older children and adults has not been determined, antibody
levels decline rapidly over 2-3 years, and if indications still
exist for immunization, a single revaccination may be considered
within 3-5 years.
It appears that most clinicians revaccinate after 3 years if
there will be ongoing or new exposure. (6/26/03)
did cholera and typhoid vaccines become unavailable in the United
Cholera vaccine has been off the market since 2000. Typhoid
vaccine is still available. The older whole cell parenteral
vaccine has been removed from the market, but there are still
two typhoid vaccines available: the kinder, gentler parenteral
Typhim Vi inactivated vaccine and the live bacterial oral Ty21a
typhoid capsules. (2/13/03)
is Lyme vaccine no longer available?
This was a business decision by the manufacturer. There did
not seem to be enough demand for the vaccine. (2/13/03)
is the correct route of administration for the rabies vaccine?
Can it be given intradermally (ID) or must it be given intramuscularly
All U.S. licensed rabies vaccines should be administered by
the intramuscular (IM) route ONLY. The intradermal (ID) formulation
is no longer available in the U.S. (2/13/03)
there a rabies vaccine information statement? If not, could
one be made since we use this vaccine?
A VIS for rabies was published in November of 2003. It can be
found along with the other VISs on the NIP website at http://www.cdc.gov/nip/publications/VIS/default.htm
there a cholera vaccine available for U.S. travelers and who
should receive it?
Manufacture of the only licensed cholera vaccine in the U.S.
has been discontinued. The risk of cholera to U.S. travelers
is so low that vaccination is of questionable benefit. The vaccine
offered only brief and incomplete immunity, and thus has not
been recommended for travelers. You can find information regarding
cholera and international travel at http://www.cdc.gov/travel.