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VETERINARY SAFETY AND HEALTH

Hazard Prevention and Infection Control

Recommendations for Employers

Employers have the responsibility to provide a safe workplace. Effective safety and health programs (also known as injury and illness prevention programs) have been shown to reduce workplace injuries and illnesses and associated costs.  Employers should develop a comprehensive written  safety and health program  that addresses key elements:

Veterinarian washing his hands.
  • Management leadership.
  • Worker participation.
  • Hazard identification.
  • Hazard prevention and control.
  • Education and training.
  • Program evaluation.

Employers of veterinary medicine and animal care workers should:

  • Develop and implement a comprehensive written workplace-specific safety and health program.
  • Review and update the written safety and health program periodically.
  • Document and maintain staff records of training, immunizations, and work-related injuries and illnesses.
  • Comply with Federal and State occupational hazard laws.
  • Comply with relevant Federal, State, and local laws such as proper veterinary waste management and disposal.
  • Inform all workers and volunteers about potential workplace hazards.
  • Promote safe work habits including best infection control practices.
  • Have a medical surveillance system in place to record and report workplace-related injuries and illnesses.
  • Ensure that equipment is maintained and operated safely.

 OSHA Injury and Illness Prevention Programs 

 OSHA Hazard Communication Programs 

Prevention through Design

One of the best ways to prevent and control workplace injuries, illnesses, and fatalities is to “design out” or minimize hazards and risks early in the design process. Prevention through design efforts in veterinary facilities and processes can protect workers and animals and be cost-effective.

  • Consider safety in the design and construction of animal handling, restraint, housing and other veterinary facilities.
  • Consider safety in the design of processes such as animal restraint and anesthetic gas control systems.

 NIOSH Prevention through Design 

 Guidelines for Reducing Veterinary Hospital Pathogens: Hospital Design and Special Considerations 
This article originally appeared in the May 2010 issue of Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians at  Vetlearn.com . Used with permission of Vetstreet, Inc.

 Temple Grandin Livestock Behavior, Design of Facilities, and Humane Slaughter 

Hierarchy of Controls

The hierarchy of controls listed below should be followed to most effectively protect veterinary medicine and animal care workers from workplace hazards. Different categories of methods for controlling hazards are listed in general order of effectiveness. However, an individual preventive intervention may be more or less important than suggested by its’ general category. Some examples are provided. Often a combination of engineering and administrative controls and personal protective equipment (PPE) are needed to adequately protect workers from workplace hazards. PPE should be used only when other controls cannot effectively reduce hazardous exposures.

  • Elimination: remove the hazard from the workplace
    • e.g., do not admit animals for which the facility is not properly equipped
  • Substitution: switch to the use of a less risky hazard
    • e.g., switch to the use of safer chemicals
  • Engineering controls: prevent exposure to a hazard or place a barrier between the hazard and the worker
    • e.g., install an effective waste anesthetic gas scavenging system
  • Administrative controls: implement changes in work practices and management policies
    • e.g., require rabies pre-exposure vaccination for workers at risk
  • PPE: use gloves, safety eyewear, masks, hearing protection, respirators, or other protective equipment
    • e.g., require the use of hearing protection in an animal shelter with barking dogs

Worker Training

Veterinary medicine and animal care workers should be trained about hazards before they begin work. Refresher training should be conducted at regular intervals as required or as needed. Training should include information about the following:

  • Potential workplace hazards.
  • Occupational risks for pregnant and immunocompromised workers.
  • Effective use of controls for reducing workplace exposures.
  • Veterinary standard precautions including infection control practices.
  • Safe handling, restraint, and care of animals.
  • Preventing needlestick, scalpel, and sharps injury.
  • Proper care and use of PPE.
  • Prompt reporting of work-related injuries and illnesses.
  • Emergency and evacuation procedures.

Resources

 OSHA Injury and Illness Prevention Programs 

 OSHA Hazard Communication 

 National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians (NASPHV) Veterinary Standard Precautions Compendium 

 NASPHV Model Infection Control Plan for Veterinary Practices 

 American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Policy on Guidelines for Hazards in the Workplace 

 AVMA Policy on Guidelines for Veterinary Practice Facilities 

 CDC Healthy Pets Healthy People 

 Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University - Infection Control 

 Canadian Council on Antibiotic Resistance, Infection Prevention and Control Best Practices for Small Animal Veterinary Clinics 

 Ontario Veterinary College Centre for Public Health and Zoonoses: Worms & Germs Blog 

 USDA FSIS Entry Training for the Public Health Veterinarian 

 USDA FSIS Safety and Health Training for Public Health Veterinarians 

Rabinowitz P, Conti L [2010]. Human-animal medicine: clinical approaches to zoonoses, toxicants and other shared health risks. Maryland Heights, MO: Saunders.

 
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  • Page last reviewed: July 23, 2012
  • Page last updated: August 28, 2012
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