EMERGENCY MEDICAL SERVICES WORKERS
Reports and Publications
Motor Vehicle Safety
NIOSH Continues Research to Improve Safety for Ambulance Service Workers and EMS Responders
NIOSH Publication No. 2011-190
Researchers at NIOSH set out to reduce ambulance crash–related injuries and deaths among EMS workers. Research addressed the layout and structural integrity of ambulance compartments, design of hardware, and occupant restraints. NIOSH researchers continue to work with the Ambulance Manufacturers Division of the National Truck Equipment Association, the General Services Administration, manufacturers, and federal agencies on other recommendations to improve occupational safety for EMS workers.
SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice J2956 for Occupant Restraint and Equipment Mounting Integrity - Side Impact System-Level Ambulance Patient Compartment
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the test procedures side impact occupant restraint and equipment mounting integrity tests for ambulance patient compartment applications. Its purpose is to describe crash pulse characteristics and establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system and equipment mounting testing for ambulances. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, and the test fixtures are included.
Assessing the performance of various restraints on ambulance patient compartment workers during crash events
International Journal of Crash worthiness: October 2010 / 15(5):517-541
The inability of emergency medical service (EMS) workers to remain safely restrained while treating patients in the patient compartment of a moving ambulance was identified as a key impediment to EMS worker safety in North America. Results indicated that the inclusion of restraint systems offering mobility have the potential to improve worker safety under many working conditions in this unique work environment.
SAE (2010). SAE Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice J2917 for Occupant Restraint and Equipment Mounting Integrity - Frontal Impact System-Level Ambulance Patient Compartment
This SAE Recommended Practice describes the test procedures for conducting frontal impact occupant restraint and equipment mounting integrity tests for ambulance patient compartment applications. Its purpose is to establish recommended test procedures that will standardize restraint system and equipment mounting testing for ambulances. Descriptions of the test set-up, test instrumentation, photographic/video coverage, and the test fixtures are included.
Crash testing of ambulance chassis cab vehicles
SAE 2007 Transactions Journal of Commercial Vehicles. Warrendale, PA: SAE International, 2008 Apr;1-19.
NIOSH, with partners, conducted a test program to evaluate the capability of mobile restraint systems to protect occupants in the patient compartment of an ambulance. This paper focused on the vehicle chassis behavior and acceleration pulses as seen in each test conducted to support the program.
Ambulance Crash-Related Injuries Among Emergency Medical Services Workers - United States, 1991-2002
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report: February 28, 2003 / 52(8): 154-156
EMS workers are most at risk when transporting patients, or responding to or returning from emergency calls. This report highlighted the risk of death or serious injury for EMS workers riding in ambulances.
Your Safety First: Railroad Crossing Safety for Emergency Responders
NIOSH Publication No. 2003-121
Reports fatalities of emergency responders struck and killed by trains at railroad grade crossings. Discusses safe driving at rail crossings, awareness of signs and warning devices, and how to react if a vehicle stalls on the tracks. Developed by NIOSH in cooperation with the Federal Railroad Administration and Operation Lifesaver, Inc.
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