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	wholesale and retail trade

Outputs: Publications

Selected Publications

NIOSH Programs Working with Wholesale and Retail Trade

NIOSH Economics Program
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2016-152 (May 2016)

NIOSH Musculoskeletal Disorders Prevention Program
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2016-127 (May 2016)

NIOSH Center for Motor Vehicle Safety
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2016-135 (May 2016)

NIOSH Center for Workers’ Compensation Studies
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2016-119 (May 2016)

NIOSH National Center for Productive Aging and Work
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2016-154 (May 2016)

NIOSH Prevention through Design Initiative
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2016-130 (May 2016)

NIOSH Safe-Skilled-Ready Workforce Program
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2016-147 (May 2016)

NIOSH Small Business Assistance Program
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2016-145 (May 2016)

NIOSH Total Worker Health Program
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2016-133 (May 2016)

NIOSH Traumatic Injury Prevention Program
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2016-149 (May 2016)

NIOSH Work Organization and Stress-Related Disorders Program
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2016-150 (May 2016)

Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders

Ergonomic Solutions for Retailers: Prevention of Material Handling Injuries in Grocery Stores
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2015−100 (October 2014)

Workplace Hazards and Prevention Options from a Nonrandom Sample of Retail Trade Businesses
Journal of Occupational Safety and Health, 20(1), January 2014.

Clinical guidelines for occupational lifting in pregnancy: evidence summary and provisional recommendations.
Am J Obstet Gynecol 2013 Aug; 209(2):80-88.

Computing Cost Effective Solutions for the Supermarket
E-Progressive Grocer, Expert Column, Published: August 15, 2013.

Preventing Slips, Trips, and Falls in Wholesale and Retail Trade Establishments
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2013−100 (October 2012)

Manual lifting: a guide to the study of simple and complex lifting tasks.
Colombini D, Occhipinti E, Alvarez-Casado E, Waters T, eds. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2012 Jul; :1-256.

Injuries, Illnesses & Fatalities in Wholesale and Retail Trade in 2005: A Chartbook
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2012-106 (December 2011)

Occupational fatalities, injuries, illnesses, and related economic loss in the wholesale and retail trade sector
American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 2010, 53(7), 673-685.

Reliability of job-title based physical work exposures for the upper extremity: comparison to self-reported and observed exposure estimates.
Occup Environ Med 2010 Aug; 67(8):538-547.

Modeling the cost-benefit of nerve conduction studies in pre-employment screening for carpal tunnel syndrome.
Scand J Work, Environ & Health 2010 Jun; 36(4):299-304.

Reduce the Risk of Costly Overexertion Injuries
Progressive Grocer, May, 2009: 108.

Health and Safety in Wholesale and Retail Trade: Hidden Dangers
The Synergist (An AIHA Publication), Vol 20, No.3., March, 2009: 31-34.

The High Cost of Overexertion Injuries: Guidance for Retailers
Retail Merchandiser, Jan/Feb 2009: 28-31.

Wholesale and retail trade sector
Journal of Safety Research, 2008, 39(2), 199-201.

Ergonomics Guidelines for Manual Material Handling
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2007-131 (April 2007)

Kodak's Ergonomic Design for People at Work
Second edition. John Wiley: 2004.

Studies on back belts in the workplace. (Analizan la eficacia de los cinturones lumbares en el trabajo)
Sociedad Iberoamericana de Información Científica (SIIC) 2003 Dec:1-6.
In an evaluation of the effectiveness of using back belts in reducing back injury claims and low back pain based on surveys of material-handling workers in 160 retail merchandise stores, this study revealed that neither frequent back belt use nor a store policy that required belt use was associated with reduced incidence of back injury claims or low back pain.

Occupation Biomechanics
John Wiley: 1999.

Elements of Ergonomics Programs: A Primer Based on Workplace Evaluations of Musculoskeletal Disorders
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 97-117 (1997)
This publication describes the basic elements of a workplace program aimed at preventing work-related musculoskeletal disorders. It includes a toolbox , which is a collection of techniques, methods, reference materials, and sources for other information that can help in program development.

Occupational Ergonomics: Theory and Applications
Marcel Dekker: 1996.

HETA-1991-0405-2340 - Big Bear grocery warehouse, Columbus, OH (August 1993) [PDF - 334 KB]

Infectious Diseases and Indoor Air Quality

Guidance for filtration and air-cleaning systems to protect building environments from airborne chemical, biological, or radiological attacks
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2003-136
This document discusses air-filtration and air-cleaning issues (worksite assessment, installation and upgrading of equipment) associated with protecting building environments from an airborne chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack.

Protecting building environments from airborne chemical, biological, or radiological attacks
Mead-KR; Gressel-MG. Appl Occup Environ Hyg 2002 Oct; 17(10):649-658.
This document identifies actions that a building owner or manager, such as in retail, can implement without undue delay to enhance occupant protection from an airborne chemical, biological, or radiological (CBR) attack.

Exposure to Ozone and Other Irritant Gasses in Pulp Mills and the Onset of Rhinitis
Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 2002 Apr 165(8) (Suppl):A526.
This study revealed characteristics and industries associated with adults with asthma who reported workplace exacerbation of this medical condition.

Respirator Usage in Private Sector Firms, 2001
NIOSH and U.S. DOL BLS Publication
This study describes findings from the Survey of Respirator Use and Practices conducted in 2000-2001 that provides estimates of the number and percent of private sector establishments that used respirators, by voluntary and required use, in addition to describing differences among industry sectors and establishment size.

Motor Vehicle Safety

Occupational highway transportation deaths - United States, 2003-2008.
JAMA J Am Med Assoc 2011 Jun; 305 (23):2408-2410.

Occupational highway transportation deaths - United States, 2003-2008.
MMWR 2011 Apr; 60(16):497-502.

Occupational road safety worldwide: lessons for research, policy and practice.
Inj Prev 2010 Sep; 16(Suppl 1):A82-A83.

Occupational Violence

Compliance to two city convenience store ordinance requirements.
Inj Prev 2016 Apr; 22(2):117-122.

How to engage small retail businesses in workplace violence prevention: Perspectives from small businesses and influential organizations.
Am. J. Ind. Med. 2015

Understanding Small Business Engagement in Workplace Violence Prevention Programs.
Am J Health Promot. 2015 Mar 25.

Violence in the workplace.
Chicago, IL: University of Illinois Chicago, School of Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Division, 2014 Mar; :1-2.

Disparities in work-related homicide rates in selected retail industries in the United States, 2003-2008.
J Saf Res 2013 Feb; 44(Special Issue):25-29.

Workplace violence intervention effectiveness: a systematic literature review.
Saf Sci 2009 Oct; 47(8):1049-1055.

Violence on the Job(/niosh/docs/video/violence.html)
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2004-100D (DVD) (2004).
This training and educational DVD that provides employers, workers, safety professionals, and others with recommendations and resources for preventing work-related homicides and assaults. Violence on the Job discusses practical measures for identifying risk factors for violence at work, and taking strategic action to keep workers safe. It is based on extensive NIOSH research, supplemented with information from other authoritative sources.

Building a research and prevention initiative for workplace violence
The 7th World Conference on Injury Prevention and Safety Promotion, Vienna, Austria, June 6th-9th 2004. Vienna, Austria: Kuratorium für Schutz und Sicherheit/Institut Sicher Leben, 2004 Jun; :341-342.
This document describes efforts to develop a national workplace violence research and prevention initiative that includes all aspects of workplace violence across different types of violent incidents.

Compliance to a workplace violence prevention program in small businesses
Am J Prev Med 2004 May; 26(4):276-283.
This study revealed that a customized robbery and violence prevention program (Workplace Violence Prevention Program) that was used with small, high-risk businesses in Los Angeles City , resulted in voluntarily implement components of the intervention program and that greater implementation was associated with reductions in robbery and violent crime.

Effectiveness of crime prevention through environmental design in reducing criminal activity in liquor stores: a pilot study
J Occup Environ Med 2004 May; 46(5):450-458. This study examined the effectiveness of the violence prevention intervention entitled "Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design" that aimed to help liquor stores and small businesses prevent workplace violence, with study outcomes indicating reductions in criminal activity for businesses that received the program.

Workplace-violence investigations by the California Division of Occupational Safety and Health, 1993-1996
J Occup Environ Med 1999 Aug; 41(8):647-653.
This study evaluated California Division of Occupational Safety and Health's inspection data (1993-1997) for violent events and provided summaries of the circumstances surrounding violent events, such as with respect to the type of industry and the source and nature of the events.

Workplace Assault-Related Injuries Incidence and Risk
Southern California Injury Prevention Research Center, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of California, Los Angeles, California 1996 Feb
This document provides estimates of the incidences and workplace characteristics associated with fatal and non-fatal assaults for various industries in California.

Preventing Homicide in the Workplace
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 93-109 (May 1995)
The purposes of this Alert are to identify high-risk occupations and workplaces, inform employers and workers about their risk, encourage employers and workers to evaluate risk factors in their workplaces and implement protective measures, and encourage researchers to gather more detailed information about occupational homicide and to develop and evaluate protective measures.

Productive Aging and Work

Advancing workplace health protection and promotion for an aging workforce.
J Occup Environ Med May 2013; 55(5):500-506.

Sources and Costs of Occupational Fatalities and Injuries

The economic burden of disease by industry: differences in quality-adjusted life years and associated costs. Am J Ind Med 2014 Jul; 57(7):757-763

Costs of occupational musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the United States.
Int J Ind Ergon 2014 May; 44(3):448-454.

Focus on: Risk Management: Don't let costly slip and fall injuries trip you up
Chain Store Age, March, 2010: 40-43.

Costs of occupational injury and illness across states
J Occup Environ Med 2004 Oct; 46(10):1084-1095.
Using BLS and workers' compensation cost data, this study provided estimates of occupational injury and illness costs per worker across various states and industry sectors.

External cause-specific summaries of occupational fatal injuries: part I - an analysis of rates
Am J Ind Med 2003 Mar; 43(3):237-250.
This document summaries the incidence and causes of occupational fatalities by industry sectors and occupations, with recommendations for targeted interventions.

Fatality assessment and control evaluation in Alaska
National Occupational Injury Research Symposium (NOIRS), Pittsburgh, PA , Oct. 17-19, 2000. This document summarizes Alaska 's Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) project that collects data on work related fatalities and summarizes the information by industry and circumstances leading to the fatalities.

Preventing Occupational Hearing Loss - A Practical Guide
DHHS ( NIOSH) Publication No. 96-110
This document provides guidance in nontechnical terms regarding the eight key components of an effective hearing loss prevention program.

Traumatic occupational fatalities in the retail industry, United States, 1992-1996
University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California
Based on analyses of data from the Census of Fatal Occupational Injuries (1992-1996), this study describes occupational fatality rates by age, gender, types of establishment, and characteristics of the deaths in the retail industry as compared with other industries.

Small Businesses

Overlapping vulnerabilities: the occupational health and safety of young immigrant workers in small construction firms. DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2015-178, (May 2015)

Application of a model for delivering occupational safety and health to smaller businesses: case studies from the US. Saf Sci 2015 Jan; 71(Part C):213-225.

Best practices for preventing musculoskeletal disorders in masonry: stakeholder perspectives
Applied Ergonomics 2007 Sep; 38(5):557-566.

Small businesses with high fatality rates: assessment of hazards and their prevention
J Occup Environ Hyg 2006 Feb; 3(2):D8-D14.

Small Business Resource Guide
This guide is intended to help small business owners, employers, and managers deal with occupational safety and health concerns. Others involved with the small business community may also benefit from using this resource.

Stress At Work

Relationships between job organisational factors, biomechanical and psychosocial exposures.
Ergonomics 2016 Feb; 59(2):179-194.

Sexual Harassment: protect yourself at work (Spanish Ed).
DHHS (NIOSH) Publicación núm. 2015-210spa, 2015 agosto; :video.

Sexual harassment: protect yourself at work - Consulate (Spanish Ed.).
DHHS (NIOSH) Publicación núm. 2015-209spa, 2015 agosto; :video.

Culture, the safety professional, and building organizational capacity: reflections from the field on safety.
Safety 2014: Proceedings of the 2014 ASSE Prol Dev Conf, June 8-11, 2014, Orlando, Florida. Des Plaines, IL: American Society of Safety Engineers, 2014 Jun; :1-10.

Mental work demands, retirement, and longitudinal trajectories of cognitive functioning.
J Occup Health Psychol 2014 Apr; 19(2):231-242.

Occupational injury prevention research in NIOSH.
Saf Health Work 2010 Dec; 1(2):107-111.

Sage advice: Don't blow your top
Retail Merchan Nov, 2009. 49(6): 20-24.

Health work organization: Intervention effectiveness
NIOSH 2004 Jan; :1-70
This study examines the impact of a healthy work organization intervention on such indicators as organizational climate, work behavior, and worker health and well-being.

Effectiveness of a healthy work organization intervention: ethnic group differences
J Occup Environ Med 2004 Jul; 46(7):623-634.
This study examined ethnic group differences in the effectiveness of a healthy work organization intervention on organizational climate and worker health and well-being, where intervention produced positive effects on both the climate and health and well-being outcomes though these effects varied significantly by ethnic group.

Stressful psychosocial work environment increases risk for back pain among retail material handlers
J. Am J Ind Med 2003 Feb; 43(2):179-187.
This study revealed seven distinct factors associated with the risk of job related back pain that could be useful in modifying the work environment for material handlers in large retail stores.

Working with Stress Video
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2003-114d
A brief introduction to work stress issues for the worker and manager. Topics include the causes of job stress, physical and psychological effects, and what can be done to minimize job stress. The video is available in both DVD and VHS formats, and can also be viewed online. (17 minutes).

Stress... At Work
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication Number 99-101
This booklet highlights knowledge about the causes of stress at work and outlines steps that can be taken to prevent job stress.

Stress Management in Work Settings
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 87-111
This publication summarizes the scientific evidence and reviews conceptual and practical issues relating to worksite stress management. It is a collection of original contributions that address current issues and problems in the field.

Work Schedules: Shift Work and Long Hours

Individual and work factors related to perceived work ability and labor force outcomes.
J Appl Psychol 2015 Mar; 100(2):376-398.

Reducing risks to women linked to shift work, long work hours, and related workplace sleep and fatigue issues.
J Women's Health 2015 Oct; 24(10):789-794.

Negative impacts of shiftwork and long work hours.
Rehabil Nurs 2014 Jan/Feb; 39(1):16-25.

NIOSH efforts to prevent hazards in the workplace linked to inadequate sleep.
Sleep Res Soc Bull 2013 Autumn; 19(2):20-22.

Shift work and long work hours.
Occupational ergonomics: theory and applications, second edition. Bhattacharya A, McGlothlin JD, eds., Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2012 Mar :451-476.

Overtime and Extended Work Shifts: Recent Findings on Illnesses, Injuries and Health Behaviors
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2004-143
Presents a review of the methods and findings from 52 studies that examined the relationship between long work hours and selected health outcomes. Also provides recommendations on issues and priorities to consider in future research.

Workers’ Compensation

Workers' compensation claims for musculoskeletal disorders among Wholesale and Retail Trade industry workers - Ohio, 2005-2009.
MMWR 2013 Jun; 62(22):437-442.

Using workers' compensation data for surveillance of occupational injuries and illnesses - Ohio, 2005-2009.
Use of workers' comp data for occ'l safety and health: proceedings, June 2012 workshop.
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2013-147 (May 2013).

Comparison of cost valuation methods for workers compensation data.
Use of workers' comp data for occupational safety and health: proceedings, June 2012 workshop.
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2013-147, 2013 May; :147-151.

Development and evaluation of a Naïve Bayesian model for coding causation of workers' compensation claims.
J Saf Res 2012 Dec; 43(5-6):327-332.

Excess healthcare costs associated with prior workers' compensation activity. Am J Ind Med 2012 Nov; 55(11):1018-1027.

Injured at work. What workers' compensation data reveal about work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs)
Washington State Department of Labor and Industries, PO Box 44330, Olympia, WA 98504-4330. 2005 Jan:1-16. Grant-Number-U01-OH-007292.
This report provides a summary of workers' compensation data from the Safety and Health Assessment and Research for Prevention (SHARP) Program regarding the impact of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in Washington State workplaces.

Workers' compensation costs in Wholesale and Retail Trade Sectors
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2013-147 (June 2012)
Paper presented at the Use of workers' compensation data for occupational safety and health: proceedings from June 2012 workshop, Cincinnati, OH.

Musculoskeletal disorder costs and medical claim filing in the US retail trade sector. Ind Health 2011 Jul; 49(4):517-522.

Young Worker Safety and Health

NIOSH Young Retail Workers NIOSH topic page. 2016 Jun;

Are you a teen worker? Updated (supersedes 2011-184).
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2012-130 (Mar 2012)

What Risk Factors Are Associated With Young Workers Experiencing Disproportionate Injuries in WRT Sectors?
A poster presented by Dr. Vern Anderson at a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) National Occupational Research Agenda (NORA) program portfolio science symposium in October 2014 identified risk factors associated with young workers (under age 24) in the Wholesale and Retail Trade Sector. The Wholesale and Retail trades sectors employ a large percentage of young workers. The assessment data focused on demographic features and characteristics of fatal and non-fatal injuries of young WRT workers from 2003-2009.

NIOSH Alert: Preventing Deaths, Injuries And Illnesses Of Young Workers
DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2003-128 (2003)
Summarizes data on young worker injuries and illnesses, provides case reports, and makes recommendations for prevention measures that can be taken by young workers, employers, educators and parents.

Masters education in occupational health
NIOSH 2002 Sep :1-16. School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia , PA 19104-6096
This document describes the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing Occupational and Environmental Health Nursing program with respect to reasons for establishment of the program, structure of the program, and impact on program student graduates.

On-the-job injury in south Texas middle school children
NIOSH, May 2001, 1-29.
This document summarizes data on work-related injuries in young workers, with examination of differences among youth of different age, socioeconomic, and minority groups.

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