Outcomes are events, occurrences, or conditions that indicate progress toward achieving program objectives. Outcomes reflect the results of a program activity compared to its intended purpose, or answer the question "Will these resources result or contribute to the success of what we want to accomplish?"
Outcomes can be viewed from two different perspectives—ultimate and intermediate. For the NIOSH research program, ultimate outcomes are reductions in numbers and rates of a particular type of worker injury or disease. Injuries and illnesses have complex causes, and it can take years for program activities to reduce rates. Therefore, outcomes are often measured on an intermediate timeframe. Intermediate outcomes are necessary steps that lead to ultimate outcomes, e.g., reductions in the risk of a particular type of injury or illness. For occupational safety and health research programs, achieving intermediate risk reductions are as important as achieving the ultimate outcome of decreases in injury and illness incidence rates. Intermediate outcomes result when NIOSH documents, publications, and other outputs are used by other researchers, manufacturers, employers, and others in their own prevention efforts and products.
Visit the Evidence Package for the National Academies Review of the NIOSH Traumatic Injury Research Program for more information.
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