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RESPIRATORY DISEASES

worker wearing respirator, lab worker, lungs

Activities: NIOSH Funded Research Grants

NIOSH sponsors research and training through its extramural programs, which complement the Institute's intramural programs. More information is available from the NIOSH Office of Extramural Programs .

Report of Respiratory Disease Research Program Extramural Funding

Intramural research and extramural research both are critical to the success of RDRP at NIOSH. The following information describes extramural research funded by NIOSH during the period 1994-2006.

Web links are provided to abstracts for individual funded research projects as posted on the National Institute of Health’s Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects (CRISP) web site.

Extramural funding by disease category (see also Figure 1).

Figure 1: Total extramural funding (research dollars) by fiscal year 1996-2006

Total Extramural Funding 1994-2006
Airways Disease $28,891,356
Interstitial Disease $6,752,282
Malignancies $12,947,428
Infectious Disease $3,769,410
Nanoparticles $2,720,281
Cross-Cutting $32,915,281
   
Totals $88,023,461

Airways Disease

From 1994-2006, fifty extramural projects were identified to be specific to Airways Diseases research. These Airways Diseases research projects received $28,891,356. Figure 2 shows the funding levels by year for extramural Airways Disease research.

Figure 2: Extramural funding for Airways disease research by fiscal year 1996-2006

Airways Disease Extramural Projects Start End
Expanded occupational health surveillance in ma 7/1/06 6/30/10
Expanded occupational health surveillance in ma 7/1/05 6/30/10
Organic dust epithelial pkc activation & airway disease 8/1/06 7/31/10
Genetics susceptibility for occupational asthma 9/1/06 8/31/10
Towards a better understanding of work-aggravated asthma 9/30/05 8/31/10
Lung disease in Chinese textile workers 9/30/95 7/30/10
Assessing and controlling occupational health risks to immigrants in Somerville 8/1/05 7/31/09
Longitudinal study of respiratory function in aluminum smelter workers 9/1/06 8/31/09
Indoor environment and symptoms in office building 9/1/04 8/31/07
Longitudinal study of isocyanate asthma in body shops 9/30/02 9/30/07
Dermal exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate 8/1/03 7/31/06
Personal displacement ventilation 8/15/04 8/14/06
Occupational asthmagens in cleaners: a focus group study 9/1/04 6/30/06
Nail salon hazards and health effects 9/1/03 8/31/06
Farm related asthma 9/30/03 9/29/06
Physiologic characterization of occupational asthma 9/1/02 8/31/05
Isocyanate exposure intervention study in body shops 9/30/02 9/29/05
An indoor environment design tool for entire buildings 8/1/01 7/31/04
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease risks in carpenter 9/30/02 9/29/04
Childhood agricultural trauma evaluation system 9/30/00 9/29/04
Initial respiratory responses welding apprentices 9/30/00 9/29/04
Childhood agricultural trauma evaluation system 9/30/00 9/29/04
Floor-supply displacement ventilation system 9/30/01 9/29/04
A validated asthma questionnaire for healthcare workers 9/30/01 9/29/04
Environmental factors in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency 6/1/01 5/31/03
Initial respiratory responses welding apprentices 9/30/00 9/29/03
Chemokine biomarkers of diisocyanate occupational asthma 9/30/99 9/29/03
Ventilation control to reduce airborne contaminants 4/1/99 3/31/02
Isocyanate asthma in autobody shops 9/1/97 8/31/02
Health effects of exposures to vocs, ozone and stress 9/30/99 9/29/02
Novel hydrogen sulfide sensors for portable monitors 9/30/01 3/31/02
Irritant-induced asthma: epidemiology and pathogenesis 9/30/99 9/29/02
Occupational asthma associated with seafood processing 9/30/99 9/29/02
Peak exposures in aluminum smelting 9/30/99 9/29/02
Personal aerosol sampler for occupational environments 2/1/98 1/31/01
Biomarkers of smoke exposure among firefighters 9/30/98 9/29/01
Adult asthma as a predictor of work loss and disability 9/30/97 9/29/01
Respiratory health in pot room work--an inception cohort 9/30/97 9/29/01
Time & scuba tank use on injury prevention/fire fighters 9/30/98 9/29/01
Microanalytical system for indoor voc monitoring 9/30/98 9/29/01
Novel mouse model of isocyanate induced asthma 9/30/98 9/30/00
Respiratory disease among sawmill workers 9/30/98 9/30/00
New approaches to cross sectional studies of asthma 9/30/97 9/29/00
Hazmat firefighters--medical and incident surveillance 6/1/96 5/31/99
Charge distributions of indoor aerosol particles 9/1/97 8/31/99
Fuel oil ash, host factors and lung function 9/30/96 9/29/99
Lung disease in Chinese textile workers 9/30/95 9/29/99
Chronic sinusitis and occupational respiratory disease 9/30/96 9/29/98
New sampling and analysis method for isocyanates 5/1/95 4/30/97
Endotoxin epidemiology and exposure assessment 9/30/94 9/29/97
Interstitial Lung Disease

Extramural funding for Interstitial Lung Disease research was $6,752,282 distributed among 21 projects. Figure 3 shows the extramural funding levels of interstitial disease research (1996-2006).

Figure 3: Extramural funding for interstitial lung diseases research by fiscal year 1996-2006

Interstitial Diseases Extramural Projects Start End
Mycobacteria in metalworking fluids 7/1/05 6/30/08
New Mexico occupational health surveillance 7/1/05 6/30/08
Genetic/exposure interaction in beryllium disease 8/1/03 7/31/06
Pulmonary effects of machining fluid aerosols 9/1/93 9/29/04
Control measures for silica exposures for tuck pointing 9/30/02 9/29/04
Molecular analysis of mycobacteria in cutting fluids 9/30/01 9/30/04
Cytotoxicity and solubility of beryllium particles 6/1/01 5/31/03
Job hazard analysis of sandblasting substitutes 8/1/00 7/31/03
Silica exposure & silicosis: effect of mixed exposures 9/30/01 9/30/03
Evaluation of a surveillance radiograph standards set 9/30/00 9/29/03
Iron, calcium and oxidative stress in lung injury 9/30/99 9/29/02
Evaluation of dust control technologies in construction 9/30/99 9/29/01
Occupational lung disease in a flocking plant 5/1/1999 6/30/00
Pulmonary effects of machining fluid aerosols 9/1/93 9/29/00
Estimation of highest task silica exposures 9/30/98 9/29/00
Computer assisted chest radiograph reader 9/30/98 3/31/99
Asbestos induced chest disease--quantitative ct analysis 9/30/95 9/29/98
Protein damage caused by occupational toxicants 6/1/93 5/31/96
Pulmonary effects of machining fluid aerosols 9/1/93 8/31/96
Asbestos induced alteration in endothelial cell function 9/30/04 9/29/96
Automating staging of coal workers pneumoconiosis 6/1/94 11/30/95
Malignancies

Extramural funding for research into occupational respiratory malignancies was $12,947,428 to support 28 projects. Figure 4 shows the historical extramural funding support for malignancy support.

Figure 4: Extramural funding for Lung Malignancy disease research by fiscal year 1996-2006

Respiratory Malignancy Extramural Projects Start End
Control of workplace diesel exhaust particulate 8/1/05 7/31/08
Airborne heavy metal monitor 9/30/99 9/29/01
Mesothelioma virtual bank for translational research 9/1/06 8/31/08
Smoking bans and health: effects of exposure on the job 7/1/05 6/30/07
P53 biomarker and intervention in occupational cancer 6/1/02 5/31/05
P53 biomarker and intervention in occupational cancer 7/1/06 6/30/10
Silica, silicosis, and lung cancer in diatomite workers 4/1/94 3/31/96
Inhalation dosimetry/exposure index of fiber aerosol 9/1/02 8/31/07
Real-time personal monitor for the dry cleaning industry 9/1/04 8/31/06
Florida firefighter cancer incidence and mortality 6/1/00 5/31/02
Airborne heavy metal monitor 9/30/97 5/30/98
Respiratory carcinogenesis in uranium miners 9/30/94 9/29/97
Fe(ii) and dust induced carcinogenesis 9/30/94 9/29/96
Reactive intermediates in gene regulation by asbestos 4/1/97 3/31/00
Metalworking fluids and aerodigestive cancer risk 8/1/99 7/31/01
Chrysotile: new exposure indices and cancer epidemiology 9/30/03 9/29/07
Stochastic models for radiation carcinogenesis: tempora* 9/30/02 9/29/05
Toxicokinetics of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether 9/30/97 9/29/00
Validation of biomarkers in humans exposed to PAHs 1/1/02 12/31/04
Time-factors in exposure effects among uranium workers 5/1/02 4/30/04
03 and modulating cr toxicity and the lung 3/1/99 2/28/02
Occupational exposure to aflatoxin 5/1/91 6/30/97
In-vitro mordenite fiber dissolution at acidic ph 9/30/01 9/29/03
Combined effect of radiation & asbestos in producing pul 7/1/99 6/30/02
Dermal absorption enhancers affect organotropism 9/30/99 9/29/02
Stress genes as biomarkers of mineral dust exposure 9/30/94 9/29/97
03 and modulating cr toxicity and the lung 3/1/99 2/28/03
Mortality in workers with intermittent asbestos exposure 9/30/95 9/29/97
*Funding ended ($0 captured for FY06)
Infectious Disease

Extramural funding of $3,769,410 supported 13 research projects related to respiratory infectious disease research. Figure 5 shows the RDRP level of extramural funding by year for all infectious disease research.

Figure 5: Extramural funding for Infectious lung disease research by fiscal year 1996-2006

Infectious Disease Extramural Projects Start End
Experimental and theoretical study of early detection and isolation influenza 8/1/06 7/31/09
Worksite-associated vanadium and immunomodulation 5/1/93 4/30/96
Risk of infectious disease in prison based hcws 9/30/98 9/29/00
Innovative hcw training: infectious disease risk 9/30/01 9/29/03
Respirator efficacy versus tuberculosis aerosols 6/1/99 5/31/01
Evaluation of portable samplers for viable bioaerosols 9/1/04 8/31/07
Design/advanced electrostatic sampler for total bioaerosols 8/1/06 7/31/08
Ultraviolet lights in hvac systems--effect on health and 9/30/99 9/29/01
Prevention of ieq related absence--an intervention study 9/30/98 9/29/01
Testing interventions to human-generated occupational airborne infections 8/1/06 7/31/11
Exposure and risk assessment for infectious aerosols 6/1/96 6/30/99
Characteristics of respirators protecting against tb 2/1/95 1/31/98
Electrostatic sampling of airborne microorganisms 9/30/97 9/29/00
Nanoparticles

Nanoparticles are still a relatively new area of research that started receiving extramural funding in 2001. To date, $2,720,740 in extramural funds has been allocated to 7 projects involved in nanoparticle research. Figure 6 shows the extramural funding by year to support respiratory disease-related nanotechnology research.

Figure 6: Extramural funding for Nanotechnology research by fiscal year 1996-2006

Nanoparticle Extramural Projects Start End
Lung oxidative stress/inflammation by carbon nanotubes 7/10/05 6/30/09
Science to achieve results (star) program 8/1/06 7/31/09
Assessment methods for nanoparticles in the workplace 7/1/05 6/30/08
Monitor & characterize airborne carbon nanotube particles 8/1/05 7/31/08
New nanostructured sensor arrays for hydride detection 8/1/06 2/28/07
From nanoparticles to novel protective garments 9/1/04 5/15/05
On-board diagnostic sensor for respirator breakthrough 9/30/00 9/29/04
Cross-Cutting Areas

This category accounts for research projects that do not exclusively fit into only one of the five RDRP categories described as strategic goal areas. We characterized 74 projects as cross-cutting, which received total extramural funding of $32,915,281. The 74 Cross-Cutting projects were further divided into five sub-categories identified as Engineering Controls, Exposure Assessment, Respiratory Protection, Surveillance and Other (Aerosols/Exposure-Sector/Substitution). Projects related to Surveillance, 22% ($7,283,745), Exposure Assessment, 23% ($7,589,854), and Other, 44% ($14,394,955) accounted for the bulk of total Cross-Cutting funding support.

Figure 7: Extramural funding for “Cross-Cutting” research by fiscal year 1996-2006

Engineering Controls Cross-Cutting Projects Start End
Computational methods in industrial ventilation 9/30/95 9/29/98
Field validation of ventilation troubleshooting method 4/1/94 3/31/97
Enclosing hood effectiveness 8/1/06 7/31/09
Developing exposure control by material balance modeling 6/1/98 5/31/00
Factors that affect generation of coolant mists 9/30/95 9/29/97
Improving the work environment in livestock buildings 9/30/99 9/29/01
Microbiological characterization and mitigation of bioaerosols in cafos 9/15/06 9/14/10
Model development for the design of better mist filters 8/1/00 7/31/02
Transport modeling of industrial ventilation 9/30/93 9/29/96
Evaluation of voc exposures in ventilated rooms 9/30/00 9/29/03

 

Exposure Assessment Cross-Cutting Projects Start End
Real-time in situ aerosol monitoring in mine atmospheres 9/1/02 8/31/06
On-site enumeration of fungal spores and bacteria in air 2/1/92 1/31/96
Fundamental study of welding fume inhalation 8/1/05 7/31/08
Multi-hazard sensor for miners 9/1/06 3/31/07
Comparison of concentrations at personal locations 7/1/01 6/30/04
Inhalation and sampling of large particles, 10-150 um 9/30/94 9/29/97
New method for real-time measurement of diesel aerosol 8/1/05 7/31/08
Microrelectrochemical sensors for hazardous material detection 8/1/06 2/28/07
Passive sampler for particles 9/30/98 9/30/00
Development of personal electrostatic sampler 9/30/94 6/30/95
Theory and evaluation of a workplace op-ftir monitor 9/1/89 8/31/96
Absorption of gas phase contaminant mixtures 9/30/00 9/29/03
Exposure assessment tools for multiple pollutants 9/1/04 8/31/06
Carbonyl compounds air sampling method 9/1/95 8/31/98
Methods for assessing synthetic textile dust exposure 9/30/99 9/29/01
Retrospective exposure assessment in industrial settings 4/1/97 3/31/00
Evaporative losses from semi-volatile mist samples 5/1/00 4/30/03
New methods for eval of organic dust aerosols 8/1/02 7/31/07
A new air sampling system for long-term sampling 8/1/05 7/31/07
Biological monitoring of wood smoke exposure 9/1/02 8/31/04
Aerosol sampler performance characteristics 9/1/94 8/31/97
Methods for developing and testing aerosol samplers 9/1/94 5/31/02
Development of new personal aerosol samplers 9/30/98 9/29/01
Workplace aerosol sampling at realistic low wind speeds 9/1/04 8/31/07
Micromachined system for selective measurement of vocs 9/15/93 9/29/97
Novel hydrogen sulfide sensors for portable monitors 9/16/03 9/15/05
Multiple velocity aerosol sampling inlets to conform 9/30/97 3/31/99
Physiologic sampler for airborne health hazards 9/30/93 9/29/96
Small, selective multivapor monitoring instrument 9/30/95 2/28/99

 

Respiratory Protection Cross-Cutting Projects Start End
Respirator effects in impaired workers 7/15/05 7/14/10
Absorption of gas phase contaminants 8/3/05 7/31/08
Escape respirators for first responders 8/1/06 2/28/07
Respiratory protection against bioaerosol in agriculture 6/1/01 5/31/04
Statistical modeling of respirator penetration data 7/1/99 6/31/01
On-board diagnostic sensor for respirator breakthrough 9/30/00 6/30/01
System for measuring workplace protection factors 9/30/99 12/31/99
Lighter compact respirators for toxic vapor protection 9/30/92 3/31/96

 

Surveillance Cross-Cutting Projects Start End
Washington occupational surveillance program 7/1/05 6/30/10
Occupational safety and health surveillance in new york 7/1/05 6/30/10
Occupational safety and health surveillance in new york 7/1/06 6/30/10
California occupational safety and health surveillance 7/1/05 6/30/10
Enhanced program in occupational injury and illness sur* 7/1/05 6/30/10
Fundamental & expanded occupational health surveillance 7/1/05 6/30/10
Core surveillance of occupational health in new york 7/1/01 6/30/05
Occupational surveillance modules for prevention 7/1/01 6/30/05
Surveillance methods for health care and related workers 9/30/01 9/29/05
*Funding ended ($0 captured for FY06)

 

Other (Aerosols/Exposure-Sector/Substitution) Cross-Cutting Projects Start End
Aerosol Science Numerical modeling of aerosol concentration 9/30/01 9/30/04
Aerosol Science A study of aerosol transport using vortex methods 9/30/99 9/29/01
Aerosol Science Fibrous aerosols in narrow size ranges 8/1/93 7/31/98
Aerosol Science Feedback control of particles in fluid media 4/1/94 3/31/96
Aerosol Science Fibrous aerosols in narrow size ranges 8/1/93 7/31/96
 
Economics Costs of occupational injury and illness 6/1/05 5/31/10
 
Exposure-Sector The western center for agricultural health and safety at uc davis 9/30/06 9/29/11
Exposure-Sector Intervention effectiveness in finish agriculture 8/1/05 7/31/08
Exposure-Sector Certified safe farm evaluating health insurance claims 9/1/03 8/31/07
Exposure-Sector Hazardous substance training for emergency responders 9/30/02 9/29/07
Exposure-Sector Conference on occupational & environmental health 9/1/05 2/28/06
Exposure-Sector Microbiological air contamination from machining fluids 9/30/01 9/29/03
Exposure-Sector Agricultural injuries in Finland 8/1/00 7/31/02
Exposure-Sector Machining fluid microbiology and health 9/30/98 9/29/00
Exposure-Sector Wood dust intervention study for small business 9/30/95 9/29/99
Exposure-Sector Grain dust exposure--physiologic and biologic correlates 8/1/93 7/31/96
Exposure-Sector Occupational disease among carpenters 9/30/93 12/31/95
 
Substitution Reduced mist generation with mircopcm machining coolants 9/30/98 3/31/99

 

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