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H2.1 Overview of the TIER Model-Loos GP
In an effort to identify the elements of training that are critical to increased effectiveness, the Training and Educational Systems Branch (TESB) of EID has developed a research approach that the branch will follow hereafter in its studies, the Training Intervention Effectiveness Research (TIER) Model. The TIER research model is designed to (1) take into account the intrinsic challenges of identifying specific factors that make the training-learning-action continuum successful, (2) logically match research efforts with the nature of the question(s) at hand, (3) minimize training and curriculum development risks, and (4) concentrate research resources. The TIER Model is a multi-method approach to study the effectiveness of training that utilizes qualitative and quantitative data gathered systematically across four stages of investigation. Stages 1 and 2 are components of formative evaluation in which the objectives and processes of training are conceptualized, drafted, and refined. During these stages, researchers explore instructional alternatives to determine which are most appropriate for study. Stages 3 and 4 are components of summative evaluation-a systematic attempt to determine if the fully developed training intervention is meeting its objectives as planned or desired. As proffered, the TIER Model is applicable to training intervention research across topical domains.
H2.2 Relationship of TIER to Injury Control-Loos GP
Two-in-five of all workplace injuries occur among workers the first year on the job. In FY 99 EID initiated several new worker interventions to help reduce this statistic, these include: (1) incorporating OSH criteria as part of the National Skill Standards Board (NSSB); (2) developing model OSH curricula for secondary vocational education programs; (3) funding three cooperative agreements (in New England and two locations in California) to establish community-based model interventions to increase awareness of OSH-issues related to young workers. Working with NIOSH personnel from across the Institute, EID contributed to the NSSB effort by helping formulate the "Standard for Standards" document; the definition of a "High-Performance Workplace;" and the identification of six Manufacturing Skill Standard Concentrations, Critical Work Functions, Key Activities and their respective Performance Indicators. The NIOSH Electrical Safety Curriculum is be tested for effectiveness in a controlled study at 52 secondary schools nationwide. Receipt of OMB-clearance for a research study of training intervention effectiveness for this project was a first for EID. The study should be completed in FY00.
H2.3 Electrical Safety Training-Fowler T
EID/NIOSH, with extensive input from classroom teachers and the professional community, developed a model curriculum on electrical safety for secondary school vocational education students. In FY 2000, 49 teachers in 7 states agreed to participate in the study and received curriculum materials at the start of the Fall semester. Instruction of the test curriculum was completed by 43 teachers (and approximately 700 students). Pre-, Intermediate, and Post-training data has been collected on student knowledge gain, attitude change, and behavioral intent. In addition, classroom observational, and student focus group, data was collected at 20 sites. A final data set measuring student retention of knowledge, attitude and behavioral intent is scheduled for collection in September 2000. This study will evaluate what components of the curriculum, and order of presentation, produced the best learning outcomes.
H2.4 Future TIER Studies-Merry C
Presently, four other TIER studies are underway: (1) comparing effectiveness of classroom- and Internet-based instruction in the correct use of the NIOSH lifting equation - TIER Stage 3; (2) comparing effectiveness of text- and video-based instruction among different health care workers in proper respirator use to reduce TB exposure - TIER Stage 3; (3) development of instructional computer kiosks for individualized instruction with low-literacy publics - TIER Stage 4, (4) use of graphics to communicate OSH to non-English speaking and illiterate workers - TIER Stage 1, and (5) use of short course delivery mechanisms for OSH training in small businesses - TIER Stage 1. These efforts will be described briefly.
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