Sleep quality among police officers: associations with overtime and second jobs.
Violanti-JM; Fekedulegn-D; Hartley-TA; Andrew-M; Charles-L; Burchfiel-C
Sleep 2014 Mar; 37(Abstract Suppl):A52-A53
Introduction: Sleep quality is an important issue in police work. This study examined cross-sectional associations of two factors that may affect police sleep quality: overtime work and additional employment (second jobs). Methods: Participants (n = 402) were police officers from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress Study examined between 2004 and 2009. Officers self-reported overtime work hours during their regular job and hours worked on a second job. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) with higher scores indicating poorer sleep quality. Analysis of covariance was used to examine unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted sleep quality across categories of overtime hours. Trends were tested by fitting linear regression models. Analyses were stratified by hours worked on a second job. Adjustments were made for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and police rank. Results: In this cohort of officers (mean age = 42 years, SD = 8.1), 74% were male, 78% Caucasian, and 67% patrol officers. There was a significant association between overtime work hours and sleep quality (trend p-value = 0.033). Sleep quality worsened with increasing overtime work hours and the association remained significant after covariate adjustment (trend p-value = 0.009). The association of overtime work hours and sleep quality was dependent on hours worked at the second job (interaction p-value = 0.043). The significant association was evident only among those officers who worked over 10 hours per week at their second job (n = 63, adjusted PSQI mean +/- SE global sleep score by overtime categories: 6.8 +/- 0.6, 6.1 +/- 0.9, and 8.6 +/- 0.9 for 0, < 8, and >/= 8 overtime hours per week, respectively, trend p-value = 0.014). Conclusion: Overtime work was associated with poor sleep quality, particularly among officers who also worked more than 10 hours per week on a second job. Prospective studies will enhance evidence-based recommendations regarding reasonable levels of overtime and second job work hours that will permit maintenance of good sleep quality.
Sleep-deprivation; Sleep-disorders; Shift-work; Shift-workers; Work-intervals; Humans; Police-officers; Health-surveys; Mathematical-models; Statistical-analysis; Analytical-instruments; Work-analysis
J.M. Violanti, Social & Preventive Medicine. University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY. USA