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Sleep quality among police officers: associations with overtime and second jobs.

Authors
Violanti-JM; Fekedulegn-D; Hartley-TA; Andrew-M; Charles-L; Burchfiel-C
Source
Sleep 2014 Mar; 37(Abstract Suppl):A52-A53
NIOSHTIC No.
20045416
Abstract
Introduction: Sleep quality is an important issue in police work. This study examined cross-sectional associations of two factors that may affect police sleep quality: overtime work and additional employment (second jobs). Methods: Participants (n = 402) were police officers from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress Study examined between 2004 and 2009. Officers self-reported overtime work hours during their regular job and hours worked on a second job. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) with higher scores indicating poorer sleep quality. Analysis of covariance was used to examine unadjusted and multivariable-adjusted sleep quality across categories of overtime hours. Trends were tested by fitting linear regression models. Analyses were stratified by hours worked on a second job. Adjustments were made for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and police rank. Results: In this cohort of officers (mean age = 42 years, SD = 8.1), 74% were male, 78% Caucasian, and 67% patrol officers. There was a significant association between overtime work hours and sleep quality (trend p-value = 0.033). Sleep quality worsened with increasing overtime work hours and the association remained significant after covariate adjustment (trend p-value = 0.009). The association of overtime work hours and sleep quality was dependent on hours worked at the second job (interaction p-value = 0.043). The significant association was evident only among those officers who worked over 10 hours per week at their second job (n = 63, adjusted PSQI mean +/- SE global sleep score by overtime categories: 6.8 +/- 0.6, 6.1 +/- 0.9, and 8.6 +/- 0.9 for 0, < 8, and >/= 8 overtime hours per week, respectively, trend p-value = 0.014). Conclusion: Overtime work was associated with poor sleep quality, particularly among officers who also worked more than 10 hours per week on a second job. Prospective studies will enhance evidence-based recommendations regarding reasonable levels of overtime and second job work hours that will permit maintenance of good sleep quality.
Keywords
Sleep-deprivation; Sleep-disorders; Shift-work; Shift-workers; Work-intervals; Humans; Police-officers; Health-surveys; Mathematical-models; Statistical-analysis; Analytical-instruments; Work-analysis
Contact
J.M. Violanti, Social & Preventive Medicine. University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, NY. USA
CODEN
SLEED6
Publication Date
20140301
Document Type
Abstract
Funding Type
Contract
Fiscal Year
2014
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Contract-200-2003-01580; M122014
ISSN
0161-8105
NIOSH Division
HELD
Priority Area
Public Safety
Source Name
Sleep
State
NY; WV
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