Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search

Search Results

Characteristics of low-level cigarette smoking in a California Hispanic farm worker cohort.

Rodriquez-E; Marois-M; Hennessy-Burt-T; Schenker-MB
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2011 May; 183(Meeting Abstracts):A1772
RATIONALE: In the US, cigarette smoking is a preventable cause of death. Hispanics smoke at lower rates than non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks; however, risks of low-level smoking have not been established. This study characterizes low-level smokers and identifies risk factors in a California farm worker population. METHODS: MICASA is a population-based investigation of agricultural exposures and health. 620 participants completed baseline and follow-up interviews. Smokers were identified as smoking at least 100 cigarettes and low-level smokers were comprised of those who smoked <5 cigarettes/day. RESULTS: Mean age was 40.9; 55% were women. 68% were Mexican-born, 28% were Central American-born, and 3% were US-born. 76% reported household incomes <$30,000. Men worked 17.7 years on average in agriculture compared to 10.5 years for women (p<0.0001). 32% of men and 8% of women reported ever smoking (p<0.0001). At follow-up interview, 7% were current smokers and 11% were former smokers. 12% of men and 4% of women were current smokers while 21% of men and 4% of women were former smokers (p<0.0001). Smoking status at follow-up showed 69% of men and 92% of women were never smokers, 14% of men and 5% of women were low-level smokers, and 18% of men and 4% of women were regular smokers (p<0.0001). 56% of Central American-born smokers were low-level smokers compared to 45% of Mexican-born and 40% of US-born. In unadjusted models, age (OR=0.97;95%CI:0.94-1.00), gender (OR=1.68;95%CI:0.57-5.01), and foreign birth (OR=1.37;95%CI:0.19-10.07) were not associated with low-level smoking. Low-level smokers smoked fewer days in the past month compared to their regular counterparts (19 versus 26; p=0.04). In models adjusted for sex, low-level smoking was associated with current smoking (OR=2.43;95%CI:1.01-5.82) and working in agriculture for <10 years (OR=2.78;95%CI:1.04-7.45). CONCLUSION: Farm workers who smoke at low-levels are more likely to be current smokers and smoke less days a month than regular smokers. Additionally, low-level smokers were more likely to have shorter agricultural work experience. Future research into the self-perceptions of low-level smokers as smokers or non-smokers would further build on these findings. This characterization of low-level smokers can increase our understanding of smoking behavior among Hispanics and assist in the development and targeting of future smoking education and cessation programs.
Agriculture; Agricultural-workers; Farmers; Racial-factors; Cigarette-smoking; Smoking; Tobacco; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Health-surveys; Exposure-levels; Humans; Men; Women; Demographic-characteristics; Behavior; Group-behavior; Sociological-factors
E. Rodriquez, University of California, Davis, Davis, CA
Publication Date
Document Type
Email Address
Funding Type
Fiscal Year
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Source Name
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Performing Organization
University of California - Davis