Skip directly to search Skip directly to A to Z list Skip directly to page options Skip directly to site content

NIOSHTIC-2 Publications Search

Search Results

Pharmaceutical dust exposure at pharmacies using automatic dispensing machines: a preliminary study.

Authors
Fent-KW; Durgam-S; Mueller-C
Source
J Occup Environ Hyg 2014 Nov; 11(11):695-705
NIOSHTIC No.
20044297
Abstract
Automatic dispensing machines (ADMs) used in pharmacies concentrate and dispense large volumes of pharmaceuticals, including uncoated tablets that can shed dust. We evaluated 43 employees' exposures to pharmaceutical dust at three pharmacies where ADMs were used. We used an optical particle counter to identify tasks that generated pharmaceutical dust. We collected 72 inhalable dust air samples in or near the employeesf breathing zones. In addition to gravimetric analysis, our contract laboratory used internal methods involving liquid chromatography to analyze these samples for active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and/or lactose, an inactive filler in tablets. We had to choose samples for these additional analyses because many methods used different extraction solvents. We selected 57 samples for analysis of lactose. We used real-time particle monitoring results, observations, and information from employees on the dustiness of pharmaceuticals to select 28 samples (including 13 samples that were analyzed for lactose) for analysis of specific APIs. Pharmaceutical dust was generated during a variety of tasks like emptying and refilling of ADM canisters. Using compressed air to clean canisters and manual count machines produced the overall highest peak number concentrations (19,000.580,000 particles/L) of smallest particles (count median aerodynamic diameter control band
Keywords
Pharmaceuticals; Dusts; Dust-exposure; Humans; Men; Women; Exposure-levels; Particulates; Particle-counters; Liquid-chromatography; Sampling; Monitors; Risk-factors; Author Keywords: Pharmaceutical dust; active pharmaceutical ingredients; APIs; mail order pharmacy; outpatient pharmacy; lactose; automatic dispensing machines; robotic pill dispensers
Contact
Kenneth W. Fent, Ph.D., CIH Division of Surveillance, Hazard Evaluations, and Field Studies, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, MS R-14, Cincinnati, OH 45226
CODEN
JOEHA2
Publication Date
20141101
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
kfent@cdc.gov
Fiscal Year
2015
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
M052014
Issue of Publication
11
ISSN
1545-9624
NIOSH Division
DSHEFS
Source Name
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
State
OH; NY
TOP