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Innovations in methodologies for inhalation exposure and interpretations of in vivo toxicity.

Authors
Pauluhn-J; McDonald-JD; Chen-BT; Kleindienst-TE; Higuchi-MA
Source
Toxicologist 2014 Mar; 138(1):2-3
NIOSHTIC No.
20043861
Abstract
The respiratory system presents most diverse structural and cellular heterogeneity suited to handle complicated aspects of air liquid interface such as the direct exposure of the delicate cellular and capillary surfaces to the atmosphere and the encounter of lung epithelial cells to complex mixtures of particles and gases. Not only the respiratory depositions of inhaled substances vary regionally but also the regional responses generated by the respiratory tract. Recently the field of inhalation technology and respiratory toxicology has seen revolutionary growth because of the emergence of the use of nanomaterials and renewable energy sources creating new environmental challenges. Moreover, the paradigm shift of toxicology testing to high throughput screening has led to the development of novel inhalational approaches for cells. Speakers will cover the recent advances in inhalation methodologies for various types of emerging inhalants and focus on generation of atmospheres for in vivo and in vitro toxicity assessment. These aerosols will include gas and particulate emissions from vehicles using old and new energy sources, forest fires, coal combustion, manufactured nanomaterials and mixtures formed from atmospheric aging. The dynamic of physicochemical composition of such mixed aerosols will be discussed to allow for identification of causative constituents and lung site-specific injuries. Structural differences in the respiratory tract of rodents and large mammals, including humans, impacting dosimetry will be discussed. Respiratory system heterogeneity between humans and animals, and their differential neurohumoral mechanisms will be discussed to aid in interpretation of inhalational hazard for humans. This course will be useful for those involved in air pollution toxicology, nanotoxicology, novel drug delivery systems, pulmonary toxicology, and risk assessment.
Keywords
Toxicology; Respiration; Exposure-levels; Particulates; Gases; Pulmonary-system; Pulmonary-function; Nanotechnology; Inhalants; In-vitro-studies; In-vivo-studies; Aerosols; Animals; Laboratory-animals; Hazards; Risk-factors; Airborne-particles; Pollutants; Pollution; Analytical-processes; Analytical-instruments
Publication Date
20140301
Document Type
Abstract
Fiscal Year
2014
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
M032014
Issue of Publication
1
ISSN
1096-6080
NIOSH Division
HELD
Priority Area
Construction; Manufacturing
Source Name
The Toxicologist. Society of Toxicology 53rd Annual Meeting and ToxExpo, March 23-27, 2014, Phoenix, Arizona
State
NC; NM; WV; AZ
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