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Violence against teachers: magnitude, consequences, and causes.

Gerberich-SG; Nachreiner-NM; Ryan-AD; Church-TR; McGovern-PM; Geisser-MS; Watt-GD; Feda-DM; Pinder-E; Sage-S
17th Biennial World Meeting of the International Society for Research on Aggression, July 25-29, 2006, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Minneapolis, MN: International Society for Research on Aggression, 2006 Jul; :TP-1
Although school violence has been identified as a problem among students, little is known about violence against teachers. To determine the magnitude and consequences of physical assault (PA) and nonphysical violence (NPV) and risk factors for PA in randomly selected Minnesota licensed, working kindergartengrade 12 educators (n = 6,469), a two-phase study was implemented, using specially designed data collection instruments: Phase 1 collected comprehensive data on demographics, personal characteristics, and violent occurrences and consequences for all educators during the past 12 months; Phase 2, a nested case-control study, collected exposure information on activities and responsibilities, demographic characteristics of others in the environment, school infrastructure and administration, physical environmental characteristics, and community socioeconomic status. In each study phase, as many as four mailings were incorporated to optimize response rates. Cases (n=395) reporting at least one PA are questioned about exposures in the month before and during the incident; controls (n=1,185), are questioned about exposures on a randomly selected working month from all months during the study period. Potentially confounding variables are selected for multiple logistic regression from directed acyclic graphs and reweighted to adjust for potential nonresponse and unknown eligibility biases. From initial results (78% response), rates per 100 persons per year were: PA, 8; NPV overall, 35; Rates for NPV subcategories per 100 persons per year were: threat, 16; verbal abuse, 29; harassment, 3; bullying, 9. Perpetrators were primarily students, colleagues, and parents. Consequences of PA and NPV, respectively, included: health care treatment: 21%, 9%18% ; restricted activity: 12%, 12%19% ; and change in work status: 11%, 15%28% ; the highest percentages were for bullying. This unique study provides new knowledge that identifies the magnitude and consequences of violence experienced by teachers. Identification of associated risk factors serves as a basis for appropriate intervention development to reduce physical workrelated violence.
Education; Force; Teaching; Humans; Men; Women; Physiological-stress; Physical-stress; Injuries; Exposure-levels; Risk-factors; Demographic-characteristics; Sociological-factors; Statistical-analysis; Workers; Work-environment
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17th Biennial World Meeting of the International Society for Research on Aggression, July 25-29, 2006, Minneapolis, Minnesota
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University of Minnesota - Twin Cities