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Cumulative risk: toxicity and interactions of physical and chemical stressors.

Authors
Rider-CV; Boekelheide-K; Catlin-N; Gordon-CJ; Morata-T; Selgrade-MK; Sexton-K; Simmons-JE
Source
Toxicol Sci 2014 Jan; 137(1):3-11
NIOSHTIC No.
20043642
Abstract
Recent efforts to update cumulative risk assessment procedures to incorporate nonchemical stressors ranging from physical to psychosocial reflect increased interest in consideration of the totality of variables affecting human health and the growing desire to develop community-based risk assessment methods. A key roadblock is the uncertainty as to how nonchemical stressors behave in relationship to chemical stressors. Physical stressors offer a reasonable starting place for measuring the effects of nonchemical stressors and their modulation of chemical effects (and vice versa), as they clearly differ from chemical stressors; and doses of many physical stressors are more easily quantifiable than those of psychosocial stressors. There is a commonly held belief that virtually nothing is known about the impact of nonchemical stressors on chemically mediated toxicity or the joint impact of coexposure to chemical and nonchemical stressors. Although this is generally true, there are several instances where a substantial body of evidence exists. A workshop titled Cumulative Risk: Toxicity and Interactions of Physical and Chemical Stressors held at the 2013 Society of Toxicology Annual Meeting provided a forum for discussion of research addressing the toxicity of physical stressors and what is known about their interactions with chemical stressors, both in terms of exposure and effects. Physical stressors including sunlight, heat, radiation, infectious disease, and noise were discussed in reference to identifying pathways of interaction with chemical stressors, data gaps, and suggestions for future incorporation into cumulative risk assessments.
Keywords
Stress; Physical-stress; Physiology; Physiological-effects; Risk-factors; Noise; Temperature-effects; Diseases; Heat; Heat-exposure; Radiation-exposure; Radiation-effects; Infectious-diseases; Author Keywords: cumulative risk; nonchemical stressors; joint action; radiation; infectious disease; sunlight; temperature; noise
Contact
Cynthia V. Rider, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 TW Alexander Drive, PO Box 12233, MD: K2-12, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
CODEN
TOSCF2
Publication Date
20140101
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
ridercv@niehs.nih.gov
Fiscal Year
2014
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
M012014
Issue of Publication
1
ISSN
1096-6080
NIOSH Division
DART
Priority Area
Construction; Manufacturing
Source Name
Toxicological Sciences
State
NC; RI; OH
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