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A simulation study of relative efficiency and bias in the nested case-control study design.

Authors
Bertke-S; Hein-M; Schubauer-Berigan-M; Deddens-J
Source
Epidemiol Methods 2013 Sep; 2(1):85-93
NIOSHTIC No.
20043363
Abstract
Purpose: The nested case-control study design, in which a fixed number of controls are matched to each case, is often used to analyze exposure-response associations within a cohort. It has become common practice to sample four or five controls per case; however, previous research has shown that in certain instances, significant gains in relative efficiency can be realized when more controls are matched to each case. This study expanded upon this and investigated the effect of (i) the number of cases, (ii) the strength of the exposure-response, and (iii) the skewness of the exposure distribution on the bias and relative efficiency of the conditional likelihood estimator from a nested case-control study. Methods: Cohorts were simulated and analyzed using conditional logistic regression. Results: The relative efficiency decreased and bias away from the null increased, as the true exposure-response parameter increased and the skewness of the exposure distribution of the risk-sets increased. This became more pronounced when the number of cases in the cohort was small. Conclusions: Gains in relative efficiency and a reduction in bias can be realized by sampling more than four or five controls per case generally used, especially when there are few cases, a strong exposure-response relation, and a skewed exposure variable.
Keywords
Case-studies; Analytical-processes; Simulation-methods; Employee-exposure; Dose-response; Control-methods; Sampling; Exposure-assessment; Author Keywords: nested case-control studies; simulation; efficiency; bias; matched case-control studies
Contact
Stephen Bertke, Centers for Disease Control, National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA
Publication Date
20130901
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
inh4@cdc.gov
Fiscal Year
2013
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
M112013
Issue of Publication
1
ISSN
2194-9263
NIOSH Division
DSHEFS
Priority Area
Manufacturing
Source Name
Epidemiological Methods
State
OH
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