The Wholesale and Retail Trade (WRT) Sector employs nearly 20 million workers. The wholesale trade sector is identified by the Bureau of Labor Statistics' (BLS) North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) code 42, and the retail trade sector is identified by the NAICS codes 44 and 45. According to the Current Population Survey (CPS), wholesale trade sector employment in 2010 was 3.8 million and retail trade sector employment was 15.9 million. About 55 percent of WRT workers were male [BLS 2011a]. In the same year, the WRT sector had 633,500 nonfatal injuries [BLS 2011b] and 502 fatalities [BLS 2012a]. The incidence rate of nonfatal injuries in the wholesale trade sector was 3.3 per 100 full-time equivalent workers, and in the retail trade sector the rate was 4.0 per 100 full-time equivalent workers in 2010. These figures compare to 3.6 per 100 full-time equivalent workers in all private sectors in 2010 [BLS 2012b]. The incidence rate of fatal injuries in the wholesale trade sector was 4.9 per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers, and in the retail trade sector 2.2 per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers. These figures compare to 3.8 per 100,000 full-time equivalent workers in all private sectors in 2010 [http://www.bls.gov/iif/oshwc/cfoi/cfoi_revised10.pdf]
. The incidence rates for fatality in wholesale trade and nonfatality in retail trade are higher than the average of all private industries. Studies have shown that at the 4- and 5- digit NAICS codes of WRT industries, a wide range of work activities and physical hazards may cause a substantial risk [NIOSH 2006]. These workplace hazards cause fatal and nonfatal injuries that result in an immense loss to the employers, employees, and the economy. Some of these losses are covered by the Workers' Compensation (WC) system, and the rest are distributed to the employers in the form of lost productivity, to the employees and their family members as pain and suffering, and to society [Safe Work Australia 2012]. This study focuses on the indemnity costs and medical costs of fatal and nonfatal injuries in WRT for the years 2003 through 2007. WC costs are used to estimate the losses in WRT sectors by body parts injured and nature of injury.