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Dustiness of fine and nanoscale powders.

Authors
Evans-DE; Turkevich-LA; Roettgers-CT; Deye-GJ; Baron-PA
Source
Ann Occup Hyg 2013 Mar; 57(2):261-277
NIOSHTIC No.
20041674
Abstract
Dustiness may be defined as the propensity of a powder to form airborne dust by a prescribed mechanical stimulus; dustiness testing is typically intended to replicate mechanisms of dust generation encountered in workplaces. A novel dustiness testing device, developed for pharmaceutical application, was evaluated in the dustiness investigation of 27 fine and nanoscale powders. The device efficiently dispersed small (mg) quantities of a wide variety of fine and nanoscale powders, into a small sampling chamber. Measurements consisted of gravimetrically determined total and respirable dustiness. The following materials were studied: single and multiwalled carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and carbon blacks; fumed oxides of titanium, aluminum, silicon, and cerium; metallic nanoparticles (nickel, cobalt, manganese, and silver) silicon carbide, Arizona road dust; nanoclays; and lithium titanate. Both the total and respirable dustiness spanned two orders of magnitude (0.3-37.9% and 0.1-31.8% of the predispersed test powders, respectively). For many powders, a significant respirable dustiness was observed. For most powders studied, the respirable dustiness accounted for approximately one-third of the total dustiness. It is believed that this relationship holds for many fine and nanoscale test powders (i.e. those primarily selected for this study), but may not hold for coarse powders. Neither total nor respirable dustiness was found to be correlated with BET surface area, therefore dustiness is not determined by primary particle size. For a subset of test powders, aerodynamic particle size distributions by number were measured (with an electrical low-pressure impactor and an aerodynamic particle sizer). Particle size modes ranged from approximately 300 nm to several micrometers, but no modes below 100 nm, were observed. It is therefore unlikely that these materials would exhibit a substantial sub-100 nm particle contribution in a workplace.
Keywords
Dust-exposure; Dusts; Airborne-particles; Nanotechnology; Analytical-processes; Carbonates; Carbonyls; Oxides; Aluminum-compounds; Silicon-compounds; Cerium-compounds; Metal-compounds; Metallic-dusts; Metallic-compounds; Particulates; Particulate-dust; Author Keywords: aerosolization; dustiness; dust generation; emissions; exposure; handling; nanomaterial; nanoparticle; nanoscale; powders; ultrafine; workplace
Contact
Douglas E. Evans, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Chemical Exposure and Monitoring Branch, Division of Applied Research and Technology, 4676 Columbia Parkway, MS-R7, Cincinnati, OH 45226
CODEN
AOHYA3
CAS No.
1333-86-4; 7440-32-6; 7429-90-5; 7440-21-3; 7440-02-0; 7440-48-4; 7439-96-5; 7440-22-4; 409-21-2
Publication Date
20130301
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
dje3@cdc.gov
Fiscal Year
2013
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
B20121218A
Issue of Publication
2
ISSN
0003-4878
NIOSH Division
DART
Priority Area
Manufacturing
Source Name
Annals of Occupational Hygiene
State
OH
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