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Are exhalation valves on N95 filtering facepiece respirators beneficial at low-moderate work rates: an overview.

Authors
Roberge-RJ
Source
J Occup Environ Hyg 2012 Nov; 9(11):617-623
NIOSHTIC No.
20041517
Abstract
Exhalation valves (EVs) are touted as useful in dissipating humidity, heat, and carbon dioxide from the dead space of N95 filtering facepiece respirators and decreasing exhalation resistance, thereby making the respirator more comfortable and less physiologically demanding. Despite decades of use, there is limited research on the psychophysiological impact of EVs on the wearer at the current, low-moderate work rates of many workers. The available literature indicates that past and current EVs on the market decrease exhalation resistance to a variable degree and may improve dead space heat dissipation and, consequently, the temperature of the skin covered by the respirator. EVs have little substantial effect on dead space humidity, respiratory rate, heart rate, core temperature, speech intelligibility, or dead space oxygen and carbon dioxide levels at the aforementioned work rates. The studies also indicate that EVs may impact comfort and tolerance when N95 filtering facepiece respirators are worn for extended periods or at high work rates. Because comfort and tolerance impact respirator use compliance and, by extension, protection, more research into the psychophysiological impact of EVs on wearers and the development of new EVs tailored for low-moderate work rates are warranted.
Keywords
Performance-capability; Personal-protective-equipment; Respirators; Respiratory-equipment; Respiratory-protective-equipment; Air-purifying-respirators; Face-masks; Respiration; Psychological-reactions; Physiological-response; Work-performance; Work-capacity; Heat; Humidity; Author Keywords: N95 filtering facepiece respirators; exhalation valves; psychophysiological impact
Contact
Raymond J. Roberge, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, National Personal Protective Technology Laboratory, 626 Cochrans Mill Road, Pittsburgh, PA 15236, USA
CODEN
JOEHA2
CAS No.
124-38-9
Publication Date
20121101
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
dtn0@cdc.gov.
Fiscal Year
2013
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
B09262012
Issue of Publication
11
ISSN
1545-9624
NIOSH Division
NPPTL
Priority Area
Wholesale and Retail Trade
Source Name
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
State
PA
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