Biological monitoring to assess exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate in auto body repair shops.
Liu-Y; Stowe-M; Walsh-F; Cullen-M; Sparer-J; Holm-C; Redlich-C; Berode-M; Boeniger-M
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, June 2-7, 2001, New Orleans, Louisiana. Fairfax, VA: American Industrial Hygiene Association, 2001 Jun; :33
Urinary hexane diamine (HDA) has been reported as a good biomarker of occupational exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). However, most previous studies in auto body shops have limited their measurements to small numbers of workers and job groups. This study was designed to evaluate the temporal, inter- and intra-worker variability of urinary HDA, its relation to tasks performed and the respiratory and dermal exposures, and its usefulness as an exposure index for assessing respiratory and dermal health effects in a large epidemiological study of isocyanate asthma. All workers from 10 participating shops were requested to provide a minimum of 15 mI of morning and afternoon (end-of-shift) urine samples Monday through Thursday during the survey week with an additional sample obtained the following Monday morning. Samples were processed with the addition of an internal standard followed by acid hydrolysis at 100 degrees C for 16 hours. The HDA was extracted in toluene at pH 14 and determined as heptafluorobutyric derivative by capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results of the first 120 samples analyzed from 21 workers in 5 shops showed an average level (ug/g creatinine: mean+/-sd) of 1.44+/-0.98 for spray painters, 1.30+/-0.71 for technical repairers and 0.88+/-0.28 for administrative workers. End-of-shift levels were not significantly different from morning levels. Average levels the following Monday morning were lower than previous Thursday afternoon levels. The highest level measured was 6.50. In comparison, some of the shop workers exposed to 25 ppb HDI in our chamber tests showed a maximal HDA level of 27 ug/g. These results suggest HDA levels in this population were generally lower than those previously reported from other studies. More samples are being analyzed to provide complete evaluation. Implications of specific painting tasks and use of personal protective equipment, correlation with respiratory and dermal exposures, and related health effects are also being assessed.
Urinalysis; Hexanes; Diamines; Biomarkers; Occupational-exposure; Exposure-levels; Automobile-repair-shops; Workers; Work-environment; Work-areas; Respiration; Respiratory-irritants; Skin-exposure; Health-hazards; Epidemiology; Humans; Men; Women; Respiratory-system-disorders; Toluenes; Sampling; Spray-painting; Personal-protection; Personal-protective-equipment
American Industrial Hygiene Conference and Exposition, June 2-7, 2001, New Orleans, Louisiana