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Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: effects on gastroschisis among offspring in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

Authors
Lupo-PJ; Langlois-PH; Reefhuis-J; Lawson-CC; Symanski-E; Desrosiers-TA; Khodr-ZG; Agopian-AJ; Waters-MA; Duwe-KN; Finnell-RH; Mitchell-LE; Moore-CA; Romitti-PA; Shaw-GM
Source
Environ Health Perspect 2012 Jun; 120(6):910-915
NIOSHTIC No.
20041106
Abstract
Background: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) occurs in many occupational settings. There is evidence in animal models that maternal exposure to PAHs during pregnancy is associated with gastroschisis in offspring; however, to our knowledge, no human studies examining this association have been conducted. Objective: Our goal was to conduct a case-control study assessing the association between estimated maternal occupational exposure to PAHs and gastroschisis in offspring. Methods: Data from gastroschisis cases and control infants were obtained from the population-based National Birth Defects Prevention Study for the period 1997-2002. Exposure to PAHs was assigned by industrial hygienist consensus, based on self-reported maternal occupational histories from 1 month before conception through the third month of pregnancy. Logistic regression was used to determine the association between estimated occupational PAH exposure and gastroschisis among children whose mothers were employed for at least 1 month during the month before conception through the third month of pregnancy. Results: The prevalence of estimated occupational PAH exposure was 9.0% in case mothers (27 of 299) and 3.6% in control mothers (107 of 2,993). Logistic regression analyses indicated a significant association between occupational PAHs and gastroschisis among mothers . 20 years of age [odds ratio (OR) = 2.53; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27, 5.04] after adjusting for maternal body mass index, education, gestational diabetes, and smoking. This association was not seen in mothers < 20 years (OR = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.55, 2.33), which is notable because although young maternal age is the strongest known risk factor for gastroschisis, most cases are born to mothers . 20 years. Conclusion: Our findings indicate an association between occupational exposure to PAHs among mothers who are >20 years and gastroschisis. These results contribute to a body of evidence that PAHs may be teratogenic.
Keywords
Hydrocarbons; Exposure-levels; Teratogens; Pregnancy; Prenatal-exposure; Occupational-exposure; Humans; Children; Birth-defects; Epidemiology; Statistical-analysis; Teratogenesis; Author Keywords: birth defects; gastroschisis; maternal exposure; occupation; PAHs; Teratogenesis
Contact
Philip J. Lupo, University of Texas School of Public Health, 1200 Herman Pressler Dr., RAS 511, Houston, TX 77030
CODEN
EVHPAZ
Publication Date
20120601
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
Philip.J.Lupo@uth.tmc.edu
Fiscal Year
2012
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
B07182012
Issue of Publication
6
ISSN
0091-6765
NIOSH Division
DART; DSHEFS
Priority Area
Manufacturing
Source Name
Environmental Health Perspectives
State
TX; GA; OH; NC; CA; IA
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