Evaluation of the roles of passive and active control of balance using a balance control model.
J Biomech 2009 Aug; 42(12):1850-1855
At present there is a lack of consensus regarding the relative roles of passive and active control of quiet upright stance. In the current work, this issue was investigated using two simulation models based on contemporary theories. Specifically, the two models, both of which assumed active control torques to be generated from an optimal neural controller, differed with respect to whether or not passive control torques (stiffness and damping) were included. Model parameters were specified using experimental center-of-pressure (COP) time series obtained during upright stance, and comparisons then made between simulated and actual COP-based measures. Including both active and passive joint torques in the control model did not appear to lead to any improvement in the ability to simulate COP compared with only including active joint torque. Further, simulated passive control torques were typically less than 10% of the active control torques, though some exceptions were found. These results, along with existing empirical evidence, suggest that active control torque is dominant in maintaining balance during upright stance.
Humans; Men; Women; Adolescents; Models; Biological-factors; Posture;
Author Keywords: Balance; Postural control; Active/passive control; Center of pressure
Maury A. Nussbaum, Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Virginia Tech 250 Durham Hall (0118), Blacksburg, VA 24061
Journal of Biomechanics
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University