Depressive symptoms and bone mineral density among police officers in a northeastern US city.
Charles-LE; Fekedulegn-D; Miller-DB; Wactawski-Wende-J; Violanti-JM; Andrew-ME; Burchfiel-CM
Glob J Health Sci 2012 May; 4(3):39-50
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between depressive symptoms and bone mineral density (BMD). Methods: Depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale. BMD of total hip, femoral neck, anterio-posterior (AP) spine, wrist, and total body were measured by DXA using standardized procedures. Mean levels of BMD across gender-specific tertiles of CES-D score were obtained using ANOVA and ANCOVA. Results: Participants included 97 police officers (41 women; 29-64 years). Depressive symptoms were not associated with BMD at any site among men. However among women, mean BMD values decreased across increasing (worsening) tertiles of CES-D for the AP spine (low CES-D=1.22 +/- 0.04; medium CES-D=1.05+/-0.04; high CES-D=1.03+/-0.04 g/cm2; p=0.035) and for the whole body (low=1.26+/-0.03; medium=1.20+/-0.03; high=1.11+/-0.03 g/cm2; p=0.018) after adjustment. Conclusions: Higher depressive symptoms were associated with lower BMD among female but not male officers.
Psychological-disorders; Psychological-stress; Psychology; Police-officers; Law-enforcement-workers; Epidemiology; Humans; Men; Women; Age-groups; Statistical-analysis; Skeletal-system; Skeletal-system-disorders; Skeletal-disorders;
Author Keywords: depression; bone mineral density; osteoporosis; police officers; CES-D; gender
Luenda E. Charles, PhD, MPH. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, HELD/BEB, MS L-4050, 1095 Willowdale Rd., Morgantown, WV 26505-2888
Global Journal of Health Science