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Gender differences in acute pesticide-related illnesses and injuries among farmworkers in the United States, 1998-2007.

Authors
Kasner-EJ; Keralis-JM; Mehler-L; Beckman-J; Bonnar-Prado-J; Lee-S-J; Diebolt-Brown-B; Mulay-P; Lackovic-M; Waltz-J; Schwartz-A; Mitchell-Y; Moraga-McHaley-S; Roisman-R; Gergely-R; Calvert-GM
Source
Am J Ind Med 2012 Jul; 55(7):571-583
NIOSHTIC No.
20040738
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Farmworkers have a high risk for acute pesticide-related illness and injury, and the rate among female farmworkers is approximately twice as high as that among males. Surveillance data were used to identify reasons for this gender difference. METHODS: We identified acute pesticide-related illness and injury cases among farmworkers from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks (SENSOR)-Pesticides Program and the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. Gender-specific associations with acute pesticide-related illness and injury were assessed using chi-square tests. National Agricultural Workers Survey data were also examined. RESULTS: The over-representation of females among farmworker illness and injury cases was confined to females who did not handle pesticides (non-handlers). Female non-handler farmworkers who were affected were more likely to be working on fruit and nut crops, to be exposed to off-target pesticide drift, and to be exposed to fungicides and fumigants compared to males. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is an increased risk for acute pesticide-related illness and injury among female farmworkers, the absolute number of farmworkers with acute pesticide-related illness and injury is far higher among males than females. Furthermore, farmworkers have little or no control over many of the identified contributing factors that led to illness and injury. Stringent enforcement of existing regulations and enhanced regulatory efforts to protect against off-target drift exposures may have the highest impact in reducing acute pesticide-related illness and injury among farmworkers.
Keywords
Agricultural-industry; Agricultural-workers; Farmers; Agricultural-chemicals; Pesticides; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Acute-toxicity; Men; Women; Surveillance-programs; Information-retrieval-systems; Pesticide-residues; Fumigants; Fungicides; Foodstuff; Regulations; Employee-exposure; Poisons; Author Keywords: pesticides; agriculture; farmworker; gender differences; poisoning
Contact
Geoffrey M. Calvert, MD, MPH, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, 4676 Columbia Parkway, R-17, Cincinnati, OH 45226
CODEN
AJIMD8
Publication Date
20120701
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
jac6@cdc.gov
Funding Type
Cooperative Agreement
Fiscal Year
2012
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U60-OH-008473; B05102012
Issue of Publication
7
ISSN
0271-3586
NIOSH Division
DSHEFS
Priority Area
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
Source Name
American Journal of Industrial Medicine
State
TX; OH; CA; WA; FL; LA; OR; MI; NY; NM; IA
Performing Organization
Texas Department of State Health Services
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