Health effects of radiation exposures in Russian workers.
Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, R01-OH-007866, 2008 Nov; :1-25
This final progress report summarizes the work carried out with regard to the Mayak PA Workers' Early Clinical Effects (MWECE) database over the past four years (2004-2008) under the CDC/NIOSH project entitled, "Health Effects of Radiation Exposures in Russian Workers." This work can be divided into two major categories: (a) database related accomplishments, and (b) research/translational accomplishments. With regard to database related accomplishments, the single most important scientific outcome is the fact that the Mayak PA Workers' Early Clinical Effects (MWECE) Database, composed of 591 workers, has been transformed during the period of this grant into the CLINIC database which includes the full Mayak PA early worker cohort (1948-1958) of 12,500 workers. The CLINIC database is currently being used as the data source for a number of international projects focusing on a wide range of radiation medicine and epidemiological problems and, therefore, can be considered an end outcome for research purposes. With regard to research/translational accomplishments, the major outputs from this grant include: 1) Three peer reviewed journal publications and one book length monograph. The work on the prediction and triaging of acute radiation injuries in these articles represent a significant translational product of our database work. A detailed analysis was first carried out of the predictability of acute radiation injury severity based on clinical symptoms and signs (e.g., vomiting, lymphocyte counts, etc.) occurring in the hours and days following exposure. The results of this analysis were integrated into a translational tool entitled, the Radiation Injury Severity Classification (RISC) system. The RISC system was developed to provide a simplified and more objective method for early ARS injury assessment. This assessment tool was designed for use on an "off the shelf' basis by frontline health care providers in a pre-hospital environment or by more highly trained personnel in a hospital setting. The RISC system represents a potential outcome that may become an end outcome with its adoption by emergency services and occupational medicine departments. 2) Two additional manuscripts (plutonium pneumosclerosis and reproductive risks), the contents of which are briefly summarized. 3) One new grant R21 proposal focusing on molecular genetics. This grant proposal pioneered a new area of research for the current collaborative group and represents a second important potential translational outcome from this grant. Over the past two years, a new method for the detection of de novo germline mutations in the children of nuclear workers was developed using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping array technologies. The ideas underlying this research have practical and translational implications that go far beyond the field of radiation epidemiology. A confirmation of our ability to identify an observable of germline mutations among the offspring of our Russian nuclear workers would inevitably lead to the application the same technology to populations experiencing a wide range of occupationally and environmentally mediated mutagenic exposures. This report summarizes these accomplishments according to the specific aims set out in the original application. A final section on Future Plans and Directions summarizes the manner in which the work from this grant period integrates with future planning for use of the CLINIC database and the further development of molecular genetic studies of Mayak PA workers.
Radiation; Radiation-effects; Radiation-exposure; Radiation-monitoring; Employee-exposure; Long-term-exposure; Surveillance-programs; Nuclear-radiation; Nuclear-hazards; Ionizing-radiation; Clinical-diagnosis; Clinical-symptoms; Gene-mutation; Nucleotides; Genetic-factors; Molecular-biology; Molecular-structure
Final Grant Report
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
University of Pittsburgh at Pittsburgh