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Cadmium and lung cancer mortality accounting for simultaneous arsenic exposure.

Authors
Park-RM; Stayner-LT; Petersen-MR; Finley-Couch-M; Hornung-R; Rice-C
Source
Occup Environ Med 2012 Jan; 69(5):303-309
NIOSHTIC No.
20040306
Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Prior investigations identified an association between airborne cadmium and lung cancer but questions remain regarding confounding by arsenic, a well-established lung carcinogen. METHODS: A cadmium smelter population exhibiting excess lung cancer was re-analysed using a retrospective exposure assessment for arsenic (As), updated mortality (1940-2002), a revised cadmium (Cd) exposure matrix and improved work history information. RESULTS: Cumulative exposure metrics for both cadmium and arsenic were strongly associated making estimation of their independent effects difficult. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were modelled with Poisson regression with the contribution of arsenic to lung cancer risk constrained by exposure-response estimates previously reported. The results demonstrate (1) a statistically significant effect of Cd independent of As (SMR=3.2 for 10 mg-year/m(3) Cd, p=0.012), (2) a substantial healthy worker effect for lung cancer (for unexposed workers, SMR=0.69) and (3) a large deficit in lung cancer mortality among Hispanic workers (SMR=0.27, p=0.009), known to have low lung cancer rates. A supralinear dose-rate effect was observed (contribution to risk with increasing exposure intensity has declining positive slope). Lung cancer mortality was somewhat better predicted using a cadmium burden metric with a half-life of about 20-25 years. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support an independent effect for cadmium in risk of lung cancer mortality. 1/1000 excess lifetime risk of lung cancer death is predicted from an airborne exposure of about 2.4 mcg/m(3) Cd.
Keywords
Cadmium-compounds; Cadmium-dust; Cancer; Cancer-rates; Lung-cancer; Lung-disease; Air-contamination; Airborne-dusts; Airborne-particles; Arsenic-compounds; Carcinogens; Exposure-assessment; Mortality-data; Mathematical-models; Analytical-models; Statistical-analysis; Dose-response; Risk-analysis; Racial-factors; Lifespan
Contact
Robert M Park, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Risk Evaluation Branch, 4676 Columbia Parkway, C-15, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA
CODEN
OEMEEM
CAS No.
7440-43-9; 7440-38-2
Publication Date
20120122
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
rhp9@cdc.gov
Fiscal Year
2012
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
B02172012
Issue of Publication
5
ISSN
1351-0711
NIOSH Division
EID; DSHEFS
Priority Area
Manufacturing
Source Name
Occupational and Environmental Medicine
State
OH; IL
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