Smoking bans and health: effects of exposure on the job.
Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, R03-OH-008244, 2009 Mar; :1-10
Extensive evidence suggests that exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has a negative effect on health. This project investigated the effects of ETS on health behaviors and health, using variation in exposure to ETS induced by workplace smoking bans. Smoking bans have the potential to reduce smoking prevalence and intensity and exposure to ETS for non-smokers and smokers alike. Existing research on the effects of state imposed workplace smoking bans on population smoking behavior is limited and relies on cross-sectional comparisons. In Bitler, Carpenter, and Zavodny (2009), under revision for resubmission, we use data from the 1992-2003 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey and models including unrestricted area and time effects to examine impacts of state-level laws banning smoking in certain workplaces on reported workplace policy and on smoking behavior for groups of workers who should be directly affected by these bans, controlling for demographics and cigarette taxes in the state. Data on bans are from standard sources in the literature (ImpacTeen and ANRF). Groups of workers who should be directly affected by bans are created by using information in the CPS TUS on occupation, industry, and class of worker. For example, state bans on smoking in government workplaces should affect government workers' reports on workplace smoking restrictions. Results suggest that government workplace smoking restrictions do raise the share of government workers reporting that their workplace has a policy restricting smoking. However, the results also suggest that restrictions at other types of venues do not affect workers in occupation-industry cells likely to be directly affected by such restrictions. For example, policies targeting private workplaces do not seem to significantly affect reports of having a restriction on smoking in the workplace by private-sector workers. Given these initial findings, it is not surprising that we find that sector-specific workplace bans do not affect smoking behavior by these specific types of workers. This suggests that effects of bans on smoking behavior and ETS are not working through changing workers' smoking behavior because of adoption of workplace smoking bans. The second set of findings related to this grant is preliminary and looks at the link between state-level smoking bans and infant mortality rates. As part of this project, we extended the coding of state-level restrictions further back than the ImpacTeen data (before 1991). Preliminary regressions estimate the effect of bans on infant mortality rates by cause controlling for child and mother characteristics and unrestricted time and state fixed effects.
Behavior-patterns; Demographic-characteristics; Environmental-exposure; Group-behavior; Health-hazards; Indoor-environmental-quality; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Smoke-inhalation; Smoking; Statistical-analysis; Tobacco-smoke; Work-environment; Workplace-monitoring
Final Grant Report
Work Environment and Workforce: Organization of Work
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health