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Biomarkers of sensitivity and exposure in Washington State pesticide handlers.

Authors
Hofmann-JN; Keifer-MC; Checkoway-H; De Roos-AJ; Farin-FM; Fenske-RA; Richter-RJ; van Belle-G; Furlong-CE
Source
Adv Exp Med Biol 2010 Jan; 660:19-27
NIOSHTIC No.
20039656
Abstract
Organophosphate (OP) and N-methyl-carbamate (CB) insecticides are widely used in agriculture in the US and abroad. These compounds - which inhibit acetylcholinestersase (AChE) enzyme activity - continue to be responsible for a high proportion of pesticide poisonings among US agricultural workers. It is possible that some individuals may be especially susceptible to health effects related to OP/CB exposure. The paraoxonase (PON1) enzyme metabolizes the highly toxic oxon forms of some OPs, and an individual's PON1 status may be an important determinant of his or her sensitivity to these chemicals. This chapter discusses methods used to characterize the PON1 status of individuals and reviews previous epidemiologic studies that have evaluated PON1-related sensitivity to OPs in relation to various health endpoints. It also describes an ongoing longitudinal study among OP-exposed agricultural pesticide handlers who are participating in a recently implemented cholinesterase monitoring program in Washington state. This study will evaluate handlers' PON1 status as a hypothesized determinant of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) inhibition. Such studies will be useful to determine how regulatory risk assessments might account for differences in PON1-related OP sensitivity when characterizing inter-individual variability in risk related to OP exposure. Recent work assessing newer and more sensitive biomarkers of OP exposure is also discussed briefly in this chapter.
Keywords
Pesticides; Biomarkers; Organo-phosphorus-compounds; Organo-phosphorus-pesticides; Phosphates; Carbamates; Insecticides; Agricultural-chemicals; Agriculture; Pesticides-and-agricultural-chemicals; Acetylcholinesterase; Enzyme-activity; Enzymes; Enzyme-inhibitors; Poison-control; Poisons; Agricultural-workers; Farmers; Families; Hazardous-materials; Toxic-effects; Toxic-materials; Biological-effects; Exposure-assessment; Risk-analysis; Humans; Author Keywords: Agriculture; Cholinesterase; Farm workers; Gene-environment interaction; Organophosphates; Paraoxonase (PON1); Pesticides
Contact
J.N. Hofmann, Division of Cancer Epidemilogy and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA
CODEN
AEMBAP
CAS No.
598-55-0
Publication Date
20100101
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
hofmannjn@mail.nih.gov
Editors
Reddy-ST
Funding Type
Grant; Cooperative Agreement
Fiscal Year
2010
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
ISBN No.
9781607613497
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-T42-OH-008433; Cooperative-Agreement-Number-U50-OH-007544
ISSN
0065-2598
Source Name
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
State
MD; WA
Performing Organization
University of Washington
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