Forces and moments on the knee during kneeling and squatting.
Pollard-JP; Porter-WL; Redfern-MS
J Appl Biomech 2011 Aug; 27(3):233-241
Euler angle decomposition and inverse dynamics were used to determine the knee angles and net forces and moments applied to the tibia during kneeling and squatting with and without kneepads for 10 subjects in four postures: squatting (Squat), kneeling on the right knee (One Knee), bilateral kneeling near full flexion (Near Full) and bilateral kneeling near 90° flexion (Near 90). Kneepads affected the knee flexion (p = .002), medial forces (p = .035), and internal rotation moments (p = .006). Squat created loading conditions that had higher varus (p < .001) and resultant moments (p = .027) than kneeling. One Knee resulted in the highest force magnitudes and net moments (p < .001) of the kneeling postures. Thigh-calf and heel-gluteus contact forces decreased the flexion moment on average by 48% during Squat and Near Full.
Musculoskeletal-system; Musculoskeletal-system-disorders; Skeletal-system; Skeletal-stress; Skeletal-movement; Skeletal-disorders; Knee-disorders; Knee-protection; Knee-injuries; Psychological-effects; Psychological-factors;
Author Keywords: restricted workspace; high flexion; thigh-calf contact; heel-gluteus contact
Journal of Applied Biomechanics