(2-Methoxyethoxy)acetic acid: a urinary biomarker of exposure for jet fuel JP-8.
B'Hymer-C; Mathias-P; Krieg-E Jr.; Cheever-KL; Toennis-CA; Clark-JC; Kesner-JS; Gibson-RL; Butler-MA
Int Arch Occup Environ Health 2012 May; 85(4):413-420
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the utility of the urinary metabolite (2-methoxyethoxy)acetic acid (MEAA) as a biomarker of exposure. 2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethanol [diethylene glycol monomethyl ether] is an anti-icing agent used in the formulation of JP-8, and it is added at a known uniform 0.1 percent (v/v) concentration to each batch lot. JP-8 is a kerosene-based fuel containing different compounds that vary in the content of every batch/lot of fuel; thus, MEAA has the potential to be a more specific and a consistent quantitative biomarker for JP-8 exposure. METHODS: MEAA was used to measure exposure of jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) in United States Air Force (USAF) personnel working at six airbases within the United States. Post-shift urine specimens from various personnel including high (n = 98), moderate (n = 38), and low (n = 61) exposure workgroup categories were collected and analyzed by a gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric test method. The three exposure groups were evaluated for the number per group positive for MEAA, and a statistical analysis consisted of pair-wise t-tests for unequal variances was used to test for the differences in mean MEAA concentrations between the exposure groups. RESULTS: The number of samples detected as positive for MEAA exposure, that is, those above the test method's limit of detection (LOD = 0.1 mcg/ml), were 92 (93.9 percent), 13 (34.2 percent), and 2 (3.3 percent) for the high, moderate, and low exposure workgroup categories, respectively. The mean urinary MEAA level was significantly greater in the high exposure category (6.8 mcg/ml), compared to the moderate (0.42 mcg/ml) and the low (0.07 mcg/ml) exposure categories. The maximum concentration of urinary MEAA was 110 mcg/ml for the high exposure category, while 4.8 mcg/ml and 0.2 mcg/ml maximum levels were found in the moderate and low exposure categories, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that urinary MEAA can be used as an accurate biomarker of exposure for JP-8 workers and clearly distinguished the differences in JP-8 exposure by workgroup category.
Jet-engine-fuels; Biomarkers; Urinalysis; Urine-chemistry; Biochemical-indicators; Metabolites; Fuels; Acetic-acids; Military-personnel; Exposure-assessment; Gas-chromatography; Mass-spectrometry; Sampling; Sampling-methods; Statistical-analysis
C. B'Hymer, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Division of Applied Research and Technology, 4676 Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226, USA
16024-56-9; 111-77-3; 111-90-0; 8008-20-6
Healthcare and Social Assistance; Services; Manufacturing
International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health