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Toxicogenomics - applications in systems toxicology.

Authors
Joseph-P
Source
Handbook of Systems Toxicology. Casciano DA, Sahu SC, eds., Chichester, West Sussex, United Kingdom: John Wiley &. Sons, Ltd, 2011 Jan; :17-32
NIOSHTIC No.
20039098
Abstract
Great progress has been made in the last several decades in determining the potential of chemicals to cause toxicity as well as elucidating the potential mechanisms underlying their toxicity. A variety of approaches may be employed to detennine whether a chemical is toxic or not. The ultimate goal of a successful toxicity test has to be its ability to predict most accurately the potemial of a chemical to cause toxicity in a human being following exposure to the chemical in question. The desired features of an ideal toxicity test are: (i) sensitivity - the test should be highly sensitive so as to detect subtle or pre-clinical toxicity much before the onset of any clinical symptom of toxicity; (ii) non-invasiveness the test should be applicable in situations of human monitoring for chemical exposure and the resulting toxicity and this is possible at best only if the test can be conducted non-invasively using easily accessible bio-fluids such as peripheral blood, urine, etc., that may serve as surrogate{s) for target organ(s); (iii) simple - the test should be simple so that it 'can be performed easily without the need for highly sophisticated equipments or significant technical expertise; (iv) specificity; (v) cost-effectiveness; and (vi) reproducibility. Being able to accurately predict the potential of chemicals to cause toxicity immediately following exposure has the unique advantage of implementing strategies to prevent the onset of toxicity so as to protect the exposed individuals from developing adverse health effect(s).
Keywords
Biohazards; Biological-effects; Biological-monitoring; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Chemical-properties; Chemical-reactions; Chemical-synthesis; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Health-hazards; Health-protection; Health-standards; Medical-monitoring; Medical-screening; Physiological-chemistry; Physiological-effects; Physiological-factors; Physiological-measurements; Physiological-response; Physiological-testing; Quantitative-analysis; Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Sampling-methods; Toxic-effects; Toxic-materials; Toxicology; Toxins
Contact
Pius Joseph, Molecular Carcinogenesis Laboratory, Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National lnstitute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Morgantown, WV, USA
Publication Date
20110101
Document Type
Book or book chapter
Editors
Casciano-DA; Sahu-SC
Fiscal Year
2011
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
ISBN No.
9780470684016
NIOSH Division
HELD
Source Name
Handbook of Systems Toxicology
State
WV
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