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A quantitative look at fluorosis, fluoride exposure, and intake in children using a health risk assessment approach.

Authors
Erdal-S; Buchanan-SN
Source
Environ Health Perspect 2005 Jan; 113(1):111-117
NIOSHTIC No.
20039027
Abstract
The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the United States has increased during the last 30 years. In this study, we used a mathematical model commonly employed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to estimate average daily intake of fluoride via all applicable exposure pathways contributing to fluorosis risk for infants and children living in hypothetical fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities. We also estimated hazard quotients for each exposure pathway and hazard indices for exposure conditions representative of central tendency exposure (CTE) and reasonable maximum exposure (RME) conditions. The exposure pathways considered were uptake of fluoride via fluoridated drinking water, beverages, cow's milk, foods, and fluoride supplements for both age groups. Additionally, consumption of infant formula for infants and inadvertent swallowing of toothpaste while brushing and incidental ingestion of soil for children were also considered. The cumulative daily fluoride intake in fluoridated areas was estimated as 0.20 and 0.11 mg/kg-day for RME and CTE scenarios, respectively, for infants. On the other hand, the RME and CTE estimates for children were 0.23 and 0.06 mg/kg-day, respectively. In areas where municipal water is not fluoridated, our RME and CTE estimates for cumulative daily average intake were, respectively, 0.11 and 0.08 mg/kg-day for infants and 0.21 and 0.06 mg/kg-day for children. Our theoretical estimates are in good agreement with measurement-based estimates reported in the literature. Although CTE estimates were within the optimum range for dental caries prevention, the RME estimates were above the upper tolerable intake limit. This suggests that some children may be at risk for fluorosis.
Keywords
Age-groups; Children; Fluorides; Fluoride-compounds; Dental-health; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits; Water-sampling; Author Keywords: children; exposure; fluoride; multipathway; risk
Contact
Serap Erdal, Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, 2121 West Taylor St., Chicago, IL 60613
CODEN
EVHPAZ
CAS No.
16984-48-8
Publication Date
20050101
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
erdal@uic.edu
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2005
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-T42-OH-008672
Issue of Publication
1
ISSN
0091-6765
Source Name
Environmental Health Perspectives
State
IL
Performing Organization
University of Illinois-Chicago
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