Environmental tobacco smoke exposure among casino dealers.
Achutan-C; West-C; Mueller-C; Bernert-JT; Bernard-B
J Occup Environ Med 2011 Apr; 53(4):346-351
OBJECTIVE: This study quantified casino dealers' occupational exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). METHODS: We measured casino dealers' exposure to ETS components by analyzing full-shift air and preshift and postshift urine samples. RESULTS: Casino dealers were exposed to nicotine, 4-vinyl pyridine, benzene, toluene, naphthalene, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, solanesol, and respirable suspended particulates. Levels of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in urine increased significantly during an 8-hour work shift both with and without adjustment for creatinine clearance. Creatinine-unadjusted cotinine significantly increased during the 8-hour shift, but creatinine-adjusted cotinine did not increase significantly. CONCLUSIONS: Casino dealers at the three casinos were exposed to airborne ETS components and absorbed an ETS-specific component into their bodies, as demonstrated by detectable levels of urinary NNAL. The casinos should ban smoking on their premises and offer employee smoking cessation programs.
Respiratory-system-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Tobacco-smoke; Cigarette-smoking; Particulates; Airborne-particles; Eye-irritants; Respiratory-irritants; Biomarkers
Chandran Achutan, Department of Environmental, Agricultural, and Occupational Health, 985840 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198
54-11-5; 630-08-0; 91-20-3; 108-88-3; 106-46-7; 5989-27-5
Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine