Production and characterization of IgM monoclonal antibodies against hyphal antigens of Stachybotrys species.
Nayak-AP; Green-BJ; Janotka-E; Blachere-FM; Vesper-SJ; Beezhold-DH; Schmechel-D
Hybridoma 2011 Feb; 30(1):29-36
Stachybotrys is a hydrophilic fungal genus that is well known for its ability to colonize water-damaged building materials in indoor environments. Personal exposure to Stachybotrys chartarum allergens, mycotoxins, cytolytic peptides, and other immunostimulatory macromolecules has been proposed to exacerbate respiratory morbidity. To date, advances in Stachybotrys detection have focused on the identification of unique biomarkers that can be detected in human serum; however, the availability of immunodiagnostic reagents to Stachybotrys species have been limited. In this study, we report the initial characterization of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against a semi-purified cytolytic S. chlorohalonata preparation (cScp) derived from hyphae. BALB/c mice were immunized with cScp and hybridomas were screened against the cScp using an antigen-mediated indirect ELISA. Eight immunoglobulin M MAbs were produced and four were specifically identified in the capture ELISA to react with the cScp. Cross-reactivity of the MAbs was tested against crude hyphal extracts derived from 15 Stachybotrys isolates representing nine Stachybotrys species as well as 39 other environmentally abundant fungi using a capture ELISA. MAb reactivity to spore and hyphal antigens was also tested by a capture ELISA and by fluorescent halogen immunoassay (fHIA). ELISA analysis demonstrated that all MAbs strongly reacted with extracts of S. chartarum but not with extracts of 39 other fungi. However, four MAbs showed cross-reactivity to the phylogenetically related genus Memnoniella. fHIA analysis confirmed that greatest MAb reactivity was ultrastructurally localized in hyphae and phialides. The results of this study further demonstrate the feasibility of specific MAb-based immunoassays for the detection of S. chartarum.
Allergic-reactions; Allergies; Antibody-response; Antigens; Biological-effects; Biological-factors; Biological-systems; Breathing; Cytotoxic-effects; Exposure-levels; Fungal-diseases; Fungi; Immune-reaction; Immune-system; Immunodiagnosis; Immunology; Indoor-air-pollution; Indoor-environmental-quality; Laboratory-animals; Laboratory-testing; Mycology; Mycotoxins; Occupational-respiratory-disease; Pulmonary-disorders; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Toxic-effects; Microorganisms
Donald H. Beezhold, Ph.D., Allergy and Clinical Immunology Branch, Health Effects Laboratory Division, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1095 Willowdale Road, M/S L-4020, Morgantown, WV 265