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Metalworking fluids and malignant melanoma in autoworkers.

Authors
Costello-S; Friesen-MC; Christiani-DC; Eisen-EA
Source
Epidemiology 2011 Jan; 22(1):90-97
NIOSHTIC No.
20038157
Abstract
BACKGROUND: Occupational exposure to mineral oil-based metalworking fluids has been consistently linked with skin conditions such as contact dermatitis and squamous cell skin cancer, especially of the scrotum. We examined the incidence of malignant melanoma in a study of autoworkers. METHODS: We followed a cohort of autoworkers from 1985 through 2004 for cancer incidence. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated in Cox models for cumulative exposure to total particulate of straight fluid (neat oil), soluble fluid (oil emulsified in water), and synthetic fluid (no oil). Exposure was partitioned into time windows by latency and by calendar periods defined by changes in the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the refined oils. The population was restricted to workers born after 1935. We examined the date-of-birth restriction in a sensitivity analysis. RESULTS: On the basis of 76 incident cases of malignant melanoma in the cohort of 14,139 white males, the HR was 1.99 (95% confidence interval = 1.00-3.96) for the highest category of straight fluid. Risk was greatest in the most recent time window. Penalized splines suggested a linear exposure-response over the full range of exposure. The change in HR for malignant melanoma per mg/m-year of straight fluid increased monotonically from 1.01 to 1.04, when the date-of-birth restriction increased from 1925 to 1945 in 5-year intervals. Results for soluble fluid were more modest. There was no association with synthetic fluid. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide evidence, based on quantitative measures of metalworking fluid, that oil-based fluid, particularly straight mineral oils, are associated with the incidence of malignant melanoma.
Keywords
Airborne-particles; Automotive-industry; Biohazards; Biological-monitoring; Cancer; Cancer-rates; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Chemical-properties; Epidemiology; Exposure-assessment; Malignancy; Metal-compounds; Metal-industry; Metal-industry-workers; Metal-workers; Metal-workers; Metalworking; Metalworking-fluids; Metalworking-industry; Occupational-dermatitis; Quantitative-analysis; Risk-analysis; Scrotal-cancer; Skin-cancer; Skin-disorders; Skin-exposure; Skin-irritants; Statistical-analysis; Work-environment; Worker-health; Work-operations; Workplace-studies
Contact
Dr. Ellen A. Eisen, Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of California, 50 University Hall, #7360, Berkeley, CA 94720-7360
CODEN
EPIDEY
Publication Date
20110101
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
eeisen@berkeley.edu
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2011
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-R01-OH-008927
Issue of Publication
1
ISSN
1044-3983
Source Name
Epidemiology
State
CA; MD
Performing Organization
University of California, Berkeley
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