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Occupational exposure to HDI: progress and challenges in biomarker analysis.

Authors
Flack-SL; Ball-LM; Nylander-French-LA
Source
J Chromatogr B 2010 Oct; 878(27):2635-2642
NIOSHTIC No.
20038131
Abstract
1,6-Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) is extensively used in the automotive repair industry and is a commonly reported cause of occupational asthma in industrialized populations. However, the exact pathological mechanism remains uncertain. Characterization and quantification of biomarkers resulting from HDI exposure can fill important knowledge gaps between exposure, susceptibility, and the rise of immunological reactions and sensitization leading to asthma. Here, we discuss existing challenges in HDI biomarker analysis including the quantification of N-acetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (monoacetyl-HDA) and N,N'-diacetyl-1,6-hexamethylene diamine (diacetyl-HDA) in urine samples based on previously established methods for HDA analysis. In addition, we describe the optimization of reaction conditions for the synthesis of monoacetyl-HDA and diacetyl-HDA, and utilize these standards for the quantification of these metabolites in the urine of three occupationally exposed workers. Diacetyl-HDA was present in untreated urine at 0.015-0.060 g/l. Using base hydrolysis, the concentration range of monoacetyl-HDA in urine was 0.19-2.2 g/l, 60-fold higher than in the untreated samples on average. HDA was detected only in one sample after base hydrolysis (0.026 g/l). In contrast, acid hydrolysis yielded HDA concentrations ranging from 0.36 to 10.1 g/l in these three samples. These findings demonstrate HDI metabolism via N-acetylation metabolic pathway and protein adduct formation resulting from occupational exposure to HDI.
Keywords
Airborne-particles; Allergens; Allergic-reactions; Biological-effects; Biological-systems; Biomarkers; Breathing; Breathing-zone; Chemical-hypersensitivity; Exposure-assessment; Exposure-levels; Immune-reaction; Inhalants; Lung-irritants; Particle-aerodynamics; Particulates; Pulmonary-system; Quantitative-analysis; Respiratory-hypersensitivity; Respiratory-irritants; Statistical-analysis; Urine-chemistry; Workplace-studies
Contact
Leena A. Nylander-French, Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Gillings School of Global Public Health, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, CB #7431, Rosenau Hall, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7431
CODEN
JCBAAI
CAS No.
822-06-0
Publication Date
20101001
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
leena_french@unc.edu
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2011
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-R01-OH-007598; Grant-Number-R01-OH-009086
Issue of Publication
27
ISSN
1570-0232
Source Name
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
State
NC
Performing Organization
University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina
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