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Emergency escape and refuge alternatives: instructor guide and lesson plan.

Hall-EE; Margolis-KA
Pittsburgh, PA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2011-101, (IC 9525), 2010 Oct; :1-17
Overview: Emergency escape and refuge alternatives was created by a multidisciplinary team at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) to teach miners about emergency escape and using refuge alternatives. The training is a Microsoft PowerPoint presentation and is intended for group-based training. It is designed to be used as a template for mine instructors to modify based on the refuge alternatives and specifics of their mine. Background Information: Refuge chambers are portable chambers that are either made of steel or are tents that inflate from a steel skid. They provide water, food, toilet, breathable air, and a seal to protect occupants from the outside environment for at least 96 hours, or 4 days. Although states and mines refer to underground refuges by different names, this guide will refer to those nearest to the face as refuge chambers, whether inflatable from a skid or constructed from steel. Other popular terms for refuge chambers are rescue shelters and refuge shelters. Refuges that are toward the mine entrance or shaft, whether a pre-fabricated refuge chamber or one built into a crosscut, will be referred to as outby refuges because of their location in the mine. Outby refuges can be permanent, semi-permanent, or portable and are usually located at every other self-contained self-rescuer (SCSR) cache. Outby refuges are sometimes called hardened rooms, outby shelters, and in-place shelters. The term "refuge alternatives" is used to describe both refuge chambers and outby refuges. This training is designed to encompass both outby and inby refuge alternatives. Purpose: The purpose of this training presentation is to teach underground miners about refuge alternatives. Refuge alternatives are a technology that may be new to miners. This training is intended to provide miners with an introduction to refuge alternatives.
Mining-equipment; Mining-industry; Underground-mining; Emergency-equipment; Emergency-response; Emergency-shelters; Education; Teaching; Training; Safety-equipment; Escape-systems; Miners; Underground-miners; Prefabricated-metal-buildings; Safety-education
Publication Date
Document Type
Numbered Publication; Information Circular
Fiscal Year
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
(NIOSH) 2011-101; IC-9525
NIOSH Division
Priority Area
Source Name
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health