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Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticle exposure on neuroimmune responses in rat airways.

Authors
Scuri-M; Chen-BT; Castranova-V; Reynolds-JS; Johnson-VJ; Samsell-L; Walton-C; Piedimonte-G
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health, A 2010 Jan; 73(20):1353-1369
NIOSHTIC No.
20037689
Abstract
Exposure to ambient nanoparticles (defined as particulate matter [PM] having one dimension <100 nm) is associated with increased risk of childhood and adult asthma. Nanomaterials feature a smaller aerodynamic diameter and a higher surface area per unit mass ratio compared to fine or coarse-sized particles, resulting in greater lung deposition efficiency and an increased potential for biological interaction. The neurotrophins nerve growth factor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor are key regulatory elements of neuronal development and responsiveness of airway sensory neurons. Changes in their expression are associated with bronchoconstriction, airway hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. The neurogenic-mediated control of airway responses is a key pathophysiological mechanism of childhood asthma. However, the effects of nanoparticle exposure on neurotrophin-driven airway responses and their potential role as a predisposing factor for developing asthma have not been clearly elucidated. In this study, in vivo inhalation exposure to titanium dioxide nanoparticles (12 mg/m(3); 5.6 h/d for 3 d) produced upregulation of lung neurotrophins in weanling (2-wk-old) and newborn (2-d-old) rats but not in adult (12-wk-old) animals compared to controls. This effect was associated with increased airway responsiveness and upregulation of growth-related oncogene/keratine-derived chemokine (GRO/KC; CXCL1, rat equivalent of human interleukin [IL]-8) in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. These data show for the first time that exposure to nanoparticulate upregulates the expression of lung neurotrophins in an age-dependent fashion and that this effect is associated with airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. These results suggest the presence of a critical window of vulnerability in earlier stages of lung development, which may lead to a higher risk of developing asthma.
Keywords
Risk-analysis; Risk-factors; Pulmonary-function; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Men; Women; Children; Particulates; Exposure-levels; Exposure-limits; Inhalants; Breathing; Nanotechnology
Contact
Mario Scuri, MD, PhD, Department of Pediatrics, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA
CODEN
JTEHD6
CAS No.
13463-67-7
Publication Date
20100101
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
mscuri@hsc.wvu.edu
Fiscal Year
2010
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
20
ISSN
1528-7394
NIOSH Division
HELD
Priority Area
Construction; Manufacturing
Source Name
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues
State
WV
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