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The epidemiology of lead toxicity in adults: measuring dose and consideration of other methodologic issues.

Authors
Hu-H; Shih-R; Rothenberg-S; Schwartz-BS
Source
Environ Health Perspect 2007 Mar; 115(3):455-462
NIOSHTIC No.
20037681
Abstract
We review several issues of broad relevance to the interpretation of epidemiologic evidence concerning the toxicity of lead in adults, particularly regarding cognitive function and the cardiovascular system, which are the subjects of two systematic reviews that are also part of this mini-monograph. Chief among the recent developments in methodologic advances has been the refinement of concepts and methods for measuring individual lead dose in terms of appreciating distinctions between recent versus cumulative doses and the use of biological markers to measure these parameters in epidemiologic studies of chronic disease. Attention is focused particularly on bone lead levels measured by K-shell X-ray fluorescence as a relatively new biological marker of cumulative dose that has been used in many recent epidemiologic studies to generate insights into lead's impact on cognition and risk of hypertension, as well as the alternative method of estimating cumulative dose using available repeated measures of blood lead to calculate an individual's cumulative blood lead index. We review the relevance and interpretation of these lead biomarkers in the context of the toxico-kinetics of lead. In addition, we also discuss methodologic challenges that arise in studies of occupationally and environmentally exposed subjects and those concerning race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status and other important covariates.
Keywords
Lead-absorption; Lead-poisoning; Epidemiology; Age-groups; Biomarkers; Analytical-processes; Metabolism; Bone-disorders; Environmental-exposure; Analytical-methods; Statistical-analysis; Demographic-characteristics; Author Keywords: adults; biomarkers; epidemiologic methods; epidemiology; lead; toxicity
Contact
H. Hu, Rm. 1518,Vaughan Bldg. (SPH-I), Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Michigan School of Public Health, 109 S. Observatory St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2029 USA
CODEN
EVHPAZ
Publication Date
20070301
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
howardhu@umich.edu
Funding Type
Grant
Fiscal Year
2007
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Identifying No.
Grant-Number-T42-OH-008428
Issue of Publication
3
ISSN
0091-6765
Source Name
Environmental Health Perspectives
State
MA; MD; MI
Performing Organization
Johns Hopkins University
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