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In vitro dermal penetration of 4-chloro-3-methylphenol from commercial metal working fluid and aqueous vehicles.

Authors
Frasch-HF; Zang-LY; Barbero-AM; Anderson-SE
Source
J Toxicol Environ Health, A 2010 Jan; 73(20):1394-1405
NIOSHTIC No.
20037499
Abstract
The biocide 4-chloro-3-methylphenol (CMP, CAS number 59-50-7) is a common additive to metal-working fluids (MWF) and building materials. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) researchers previously identified and quantified CMP in a commercial water-soluble MWF, TRIM VX, and demonstrated irritancy and sensitization potential of both TRIM VX and CMP alone after dermal exposure in a murine model. In the current study, the in vitro human epidermal permeability of CMP contained in a working dilution of TRIM VX (20% in water) was evaluated and, for comparison, permeability from an aqueous buffer was also assessed. CMP penetration was also measured from transient exposures to 20% TRIM VX. To address differences in penetration rates from 20% TRIM VX and from buffer, the role of thermodynamic activity of CMP in the 2 vehicles on dermal penetration was investigated. Static headspace gas chromatography was used to measure vapor pressures and infer fractional thermodynamic activities of CMP in the mixtures. Permeability coefficient (kp) of CMP from 20% TRIM VX was (4.1 +/- 0.8) x 10-3 cm/h (mean +/- SD, n = 5), and CMP was found at a concentration of 3555 +/- 191 microg/ml in this donor. In contrast, kp was 0.18 +/- 0.03 cm/h (n = 5) at a similar concentration (3919 +/- 240) from buffer donor. Steady-state fluxes from 20% TRIM VX and buffer were comparable when expressed as functions of thermodynamic activity of CMP in the donor, rather than as concentrations. Transient (20 or 40 min) exposures of epidermal membranes to 20% TRIM VX (n = 4) resulted in total penetration of 4.2 +/- 1.2 and 7.3 +/- 0.8 microg/cm2, respectively; these amounts are comparable to amounts predicted using a simple algebraic equation.
Keywords
Cutting-oils; Fluids; Metal-industry-workers; Metal-workers; Metalworking-fluids; Biocides; Skin-exposure; Skin-irritants; Skin-sensitivity; Sensitization; In-vitro-study; Skin-absorption; Thermodynamic-reactions; Contact-dermatitis; Aqueous-solutions; Exposure-assessment; Statistical-analysis
Contact
H. Frederick Frasch, PhD, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Health Effects Laboratory Division, 1095 Willowdale Road, Morgantown, WV 26505
CODEN
JTEHD6
CAS No.
59-50-7
Publication Date
20100101
Document Type
Journal Article
Email Address
HFrasch@cdc.gov
Fiscal Year
2010
NTIS Accession No.
NTIS Price
Issue of Publication
20
ISSN
1528-7394
NIOSH Division
HELD
Source Name
Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A: Current Issues
State
WV
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